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 EE Notes

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Sankar™ -Dark ray

Number of posts : 1067
Age : 26
Registration date : 2007-12-12

PostSubject: Re: EE Notes   Thu Dec 27, 2007 8:35 am

  • Finding
    economical methods for salvaging hazardous industrial wastes, ensure
    safety against known and proven industrial hazards and finding out
    substitutes for proven hazardous materials based on local resources and
    needs instead of depending on advanced nations to find solutions.
  • Thus
    it is the human community that is the cause and victim of environmental
    degradation. Thus survival and well being of human society and nation
    depend sustainable development.. To meet this we must ensure that demand
    on the environment from which we derive our sustenance, does not exceed
    its carrying capacity for the present and future generations.

What is
World Buisness Council for sustainable development depicts
this concept as creating more products while consuming lesser amounts resources
and minimum waste production and pollutants. It was addressed in Agenda 21 of
the Earth Summit 1992. It can be taken as
production of “economically valuable goods” which have been produced in
an “ecologically sound manner”. It is the relationship between economic and
ecological data which is utilized in making strategic decisions and to detect
and exploit potential ecological and
economic improvement.

Seven eco-efficiency
elements are 1)save natural resources, 2)save energy, 3) emits less harmful
substances.4)more recycling ability. 5) use renewable resources 6)Look for long
lasting products.7)look for efficient and useful products.

Few Noteworthy Examples of SD

1. Wind
energy in Tamil Nadu: -
T N is ranks first in the country in the field of
Wind Power Generation with the installation of 117 wind electric generators
with a total capacity of 19.010 MW.through SD and it has emerged as a viable
and cost effective technology. The first private sector wind farm of the
country was set up in Tamil Nadu during 1990 and 61% of the National Installed
capacity of the wind farms has been contributed by Tamil Nadu. The wind farms
in Tamil Nadu have generated 6277.905 million units of electricity up to 2002.

2. Literacy
and organic agriculture in Kerala
: - Kerala stands in the forefront of
Indian states in the matter of literacy and education. According to the census
of 1991, the rate of literacy in Kerala is 94.59 per cent. This literacy rate
is more than double that of the country. In 2002, the state government of Kerala, India,
launched an organic agriculture policy initiative which is not only
eco-friendly but also alternative face to face local market. Organic farming in
Kerala is mostly export- oriented.

3. Barefoot
college in Tilonia
: - The social work and research Centre (SWRC) started
officially in the village if Tilonia on 5 February 1972. The Barefoot College
(BC) as the SWRC is called, was the result of practical experience and hours of
work in the villages, weeks of meeting ordinary peasants who wanted to get
together and live and work in a village setting. It was not inspired by books
or by theories of academics based in urban areas. They invested more in people
than in projects. The areas on which the Barefoot College
concentrated were

Ground water


Medical care

Women’s programmes agricultural extension

Rural industry

Appropriate technology (use of biogas,
photovoltaic cell etc)

Animal husbandry


DDS in Andhra Pradesh (started a Green School
in the project area [Manchar village])

development society(DDS)is an NGO which promotes sustenance in rural communities
through developing seed banks, cultivation of grains (millets)through promoting
micro finance in the Grameen Bank model, where money was lend to a group who
were jointly responsible for the loan.

*They have taken
strategy to evolve a self-sufficient farm for a small family of five persons,
to provide maximum food, fuel and fodder. *They demonstrate various function
pertaining to soil, harvesting rain water, arresting soil erosion, the role of
trees, wind breaks and legume species and a poly cultural pattern of food crops
and horticultural species. *Certain micro-projects works (soil conservation and
water harvesting) were also started by them. *Their clients were mainly poor



Need for skilled manpower.

Man has to be skilled in
occupational skills and also be trained

To understand
our environment the implications of our activities on the environment.

For drafting
environmental management plans that involve industrial restructuring, for providing support base for
manufacturing industries.

stabilization, integrated land use etc requires more researchers, scientists, workers etc

To manage the
natural resource base for sustainable development. To acquire skills and
insights to renew and maintain the life support systems.

To reduce unnecessary use and wastage of resources so as to save energy and prevent
the overloading beyond the earth’s carrying capacity.(i.e) for short term
benefits long term environmental and economic costs must be avoided.

  • To excel
    in the whole range of eco-friendly technologies (appropriate
    technologies )and for developning and applying these technologies
    based on renewable resources and activities based on environmental
    economies such as pollution prevention technologies, recycling and use of
    materials and energy conservation, ecologically compatible housing and
    slum improvement, sustainability in agriculture, animal husbandry and
    forestry, biodiversity conservation and utilization etc.
  • To
    address and to deal with environmental and ecological issues.
  • To
    have sustainable growth in the field of biotechnology-led industry.
  • To
    exploit opportunities in order to succeed in the increasingly competitive
  • For
    the development of telecommunication and
    IT industry.
  • To
    attract international companies to become partners with the nations that
    possess IT companies and English-knowing Software Programmers.
  • For
    the growth of export oriented industries skilled engineers, technicians,
    managers, supervisors, machinists, tool makers etc are required

Skilled labourer is the one who
gets proper training and education to work in a specified field and it is the
ultimate goal of all social and economic development and the biggest asset a country can have.

How to impart this skill or How to create skilled

Retraining of
the existing work force to equip them with specialized and up-to date skills
since production techniques will become automated and complex.

and reorientation of the courses to respond effectively to current and future
needs of job market. Regular and close monitoring of the curricula of the
educational and training institutions to meet the demands of new skills arising
from rapid technological developments.

education has become part of the school curriculum right from the primary stage
to higher levels of education to develop software programmers in the IT

Sufficient and
updated coverage on environment education to be relevant to the needs of the
industry, in the technical, business and interpersonal aspects. This equips the
people with the competency to create or use innovative technologies, helping to
achieve more sustainability in people’s lifestyles and activities.

programmes are there which deal with brown agenda i.e. problems related with
pollution, chemical, biochemical, engineering investigation, technical
development for waste minimization and recycling, resource recovery, effluent
treatment and other environmental studies, development of instruments for
pollution measuring and control, development of eco-friendly and cleaner

Research Scheme provides scientific knowledge and trained personnel needed to
manage the natural resources in a rational and sustainable manner.

training and information broaden the skills of the people. Forest
education and training produce skilled forest managers to manage, protect and
conserve the forests.

training programmes on wild life management, biodiversity conservation,
ecotourism planning, wetland conservation and management and introduction of
environment education in the schools and colleges(in interaction with UGC,
NCERT) is conducted by Wildlife Institute of India (WII) Dehradun to produce
skilled manpower. The Center for Mining Environment (CME), Dhanbad has various
academic Human Resource development and RandD activities which include M.Tech
programme in Environment Science and Engineering.

  • In
    developing these skills, emphasis should be placed on leadership qualities
    such as creativity, innovativeness and entrepreneurship.

Critical industrial skills such as tooling and fabrication of precision parts
and components, precision instrument calibration and product design etc should
be given to the workers



The role of individual and
community in sustainable development is of paramount importance, because if
every individual contribute substantially, the effect will be visible at the
local, national, and at the global level, as the environmental has no boundaries.

It is the responsibility of human
race who has occupied the commanding position on this earth to protect the
earth and provide conducive environment for itself and innumerable other
species which evolved on this earthby maintaining peace, harmony and
equity in nature. Such an attitude and a small effort made by each individual
at his own place will make the whole environment clean and healthy.

Individual and Community-based management
enables the people to manage, plan, regulate and enforce the use of the
resources in their specific places.

Importance of individual and community

  • Individuals
    can be watch dogs to protect their own environment from the consequences
    of unsustainable projects.
  • Action
    of an individual can begin change first and to inspire others. Reduce
    dependency on fossil fuels especially coal and oil. Use public transport
    or bicycle for the movement of short distances or go by foot. Make use of
    biogas. Use only minimum required water and electricity for various
    activities. Plant more trees for healthier environment. Do rain water
    harvesting in your compounds and help others to do it. Encourage organic
    farming and making of compost
  • As
    a part of the community they can take actions when they see offenders who
    for their own benefits are damaging the environment for others living in
    the area.
  • Better
    cooperation among the community members as individual actions when done as
    a group will have a powerful effect on the negative decisions of an
    activity through press and electronic media. They can form a lobby to
    strengthen the monuments in their village, town or country.
  • Increase
    the local capacity or ability of the community to undertake projects and
    develop skills and knowledge ranging from project management to ecology.
  • Helps
    in population reduction programmes, removing illiteracy, having higher
    education etc.
  • To
    make others aware of the impacts of our activities and the need for
    protecting resources, need for following the laws. Use of eco friendly
    products. Cut down the use of CFCs and other harmful things by not using
    the equipments that contain these.
  • An
    individual can bring an environment offence or nuisance to the attention
    of the authorities.
  • They
    can follow environmental calendar to be active contributors to sustainable
    development Role of community participation in various sectors

  • Ecosystem-Based
    Community Forestry And Restoration: -helps in promoting sustainable
    forestry, economic development, restoration of the forest and the
    respective forest products, and community development.

You donno who you are messing with!!

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Sankar™ -Dark ray

Number of posts : 1067
Age : 26
Registration date : 2007-12-12

PostSubject: Re: EE Notes   Thu Dec 27, 2007 8:36 am

  • Community
    Participation in organic Agriculture and Bio- Diversity Conservation
  • Promoting
    Income Generation Activities to Sustain Environment Restoration:-

    • Weaker
      sections of the community can be focused to take up organic farming on
      marginal land and related eco- development activities like tree planting,
      nursery cultivation and micro- watershed programmes.
    • Using
      indigenous and traditional seed varieties to grow crops like wheat,
      pulses, cotton, millets, vegetables and fruits.
    • Growing
      indigenous herbs through kitchen gardens and hedgerows for their
      medicinal and pest repellent values respectively.
    • Reviving
      depleting indigenous livestock and poultry species of the region.
    • Credit
      management programmes provide various forms of financial assistance to enable
      farmers to raise native livestock, sheep and goat husbandry, with native
      poultry eggs and chicks for hatching and rising.
    • Establishment
      of compost producing centers, reusing and recycling waste in addition
      generates employment and income, which provide valuable inputs farming.
    • Initiating
      breeding centers for local varieties of livestock and poultry.

  • The
    farmers undertake surveys and document village accounts of existing
    practices, traditional

uses of biological resources, extinct and
threatened indigenous species of flora and fauna, eco-

problems, and development issues. This
helps the community to understand the wealth or

depletion of their resources.

4. Community
can work for the cleaning up of ponds, other water bodies, streets and make
others aware of the need for keeping the
environment clean.

  • In
    the restoration of fish stocks and their habitats: -Starting volunteer
    hatcheries, clean-up projects in rivers, lakes and estuaries, in the hope
    of restoring vulnerable stocks of fish. It benefits the larger
    community-both human and non-human.

Some examples

a retired army jawan, started an integrated development programme
based on water shed management, soil conservation, use of biogas, solar cooking
devices etc in Ralegan Siddhi, in Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra and today,
the village which was leading towards social deterioration, is declared as as Urja
by the government.

2. Tarun
Bharat Sangh
made remarkable change in the Bhaonta Kolyala village,
which was facing severe drought. Now by repairing the johads they could harvest
rain water and now all the wells in the village were filled with water.
Agriculture is prospering and milk production has increased by 10 times.

who protested against the unnecessary cutting of trees . Chipko
movement in 1973
in the Himalayan region.

is leading in Narmada Bachao Andolanmovement where
massive damming of river Narmada and its
tributaries is opposed as it is supposed to cause severe ecosystem damage and
damage to local people.

the author of ‘Silent
Spring’ .The release of her book brought about public concern about the use of
chemicals in the US
and is considered to be the beginning of environment movement today.

6.Beej Bachao Andolan: - is a people’s
movement for conserving indigenous seeds, for reviving or rejuvenating traditional sustainable agriculture and
agricultural diversity. This began when Vijay Jardhari, a farmer and social
activist of Jardhargaon
, a typical village in Tehri Garhwal district of
Uttaranchal, realized that modern agriculture was destroying traditional
farming. Soil health was declining and farmers had to use increasing amounts of
fertilizers and pesticides. Jardhari and his friends visited villages in the
region to learn more about traditional varieties of seeds and they started BBA.
This has now spread to many parts of Uttaranchal. The BBA has saved about 150
varieties of paddy, 170 varieties of rajma120 varieties of beans, 40 of finger
millets and 8 of wheat.

Principles of BBA

1.Follow only traditional mixed farming and intercropping of
12 different crops in which each supports the other.

2.Only organic manures and bio pesticides (ash, cow’s urine,
neem etc) are used as fertilizers and pesticides.

3.Monocultures were not practiced.

4.Created awareness about the importance of protecting
indigenous seeds and multicropping.

Significance of BBA

1.Cultivating 12 different forms maintained crop fertility,
reduced crop failure, provided protection against drought, and nutritional

2.They had a year-round supply of food.

3.Productivity increased.

4.Use of bio-pesticides improved people’s health.

5.More and better fodder has improved the health and
productivity of livestock.

6.Helped women’s Self Help Groups (SHGs) to set up seed
banks of traditional crop varieties.

7.The ecological balance in that area was maintained.


INTERNATIONAL AGENCIES (in sustainable development)

National Organizations

1.Centre for
Science and Environment [CSE] New Delhi.
The center in spreading environmental education and awareness in India.

2. National Environmental Engineering Research Institute
[NEERI], Nagpur.
With branches all over the country. It is
involved in monitoring and analysis of air and water quality in the country.

3. Natural Research Development and Energy projects
[NARDEP] Kanyakumari. Involved in study and
development of non-conventional energy sources in India.

4. Indian council of Forestry Research and Education,
Dehradun. Imparting training and education on sustainable forestry.

5. Wildlife
Institute of India
[WII], Dehradun. Imparting training on
wildlife cnsvn and mangnt 6.Indian Canada Environment Facility [ICEF].
This is a joint initiative of the government
of India and the government
of Canada
created by the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding [MoU] between the two governments in October 1992 for the
purpose of undertaking projects related to the environment.

7.EOSE Environmental Orientation to school Education. It is a scheme for spreading environment education
through schools. Under this scheme there are 3 nodal agencies for funding
voluntary agencies that spread E E. 1. CEE Centre for Environment
Education established in 1984 for developing
programmes and materials to increase awareness about the environment. 2.
Uttarakhand Seva Nidhi (UKSN), Almora working
in the hilly areas of Almora and provides assistance training and
monitoring to various smaller
organizations located in 12 hill districts of the Uttarakhand. They create
envtal awremess and give people confidence in their own abilities to find
solutions. They also assist NGOs in the region and as a resource center for EE
for training school teachers and NGOs and workbook programme ion schools. Local
workers are trained to become community environmental workers. 3. CPR
Enviornmnetal Education Centr (CPREEC) Chennai.
Appointed in 1993. The center has network of about 400 NGOs in Andhra Pradesh,
Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Orissa and Pondicherry.
It also has programmes for Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve and Andaman Nicobar.

International Organizations

1.Environment Protection Agency [EPA]. It is an independent Federal Agency of the U.S.
Government establishment in 1970.It deals with protection of environment.

2.Man and Biosphere Programme [MAB].

3. International
Union for the conservation of Nature Resources
[IUCN] Morges, Switzerland. I4. World Wide
Fund [WWF] of Nature Conservation. It is one of the world’s largest private

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Sankar™ -Dark ray

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PostSubject: Re: EE Notes   Thu Dec 27, 2007 8:36 am

international nature
conservation organizations. Its mission is to conserve nature by preserving
genetic, species and ecosystem diversity.

5. Commission on Sustainable Development [CSD].Commission on Sustainable Development was set up in
1993 under Economic and Social Council [ECOSOC] of the UN for the purpose of
review in progress of implementation of Agenda 21, adopted during the United
Nations Conference on Environment and Development [UNCED], held in Rio de
Janeiro in Brazil 1992. CSD meetings are held every year in New York. During this meeting every country
has to present its National Report on progress achieved on the themes selected
for the session. The ministry of External affairs is the nodal ministry for the
CSD matters.

6. World summit on sustainable development [WSSD]

was held in Johannesburg in 2002 South
Africa to mark the 10th year post UNCED held
in Rio in 1992. I reviewed the progress
towards sustainable development and the commitments made 10 years ago in Rio.

7. Montreal protocol

The agreement drafted by
the committee formed by the United Nations that calls for a stepwise reduction
of CFCs is called MONTREAL PROTOCOL which was signed by various countries at
Montreal, Canada on Sept 16 1987.This day is proclaimed as the International
day for the OZONE LAYER. The agreement includes

a. All the signatories
have to assess their consumption and production of ODS every year

b. All signatories were to
phase out their consumption of ODS by the year 2000.

c. Only those developing
countries whose percapita consumption of ODS was less than .3kgwere given a
grace period of 10 years for phasing out ODS.

d. Establishment of an
environmental fund, paid to the developing nations by the developed nations, to
produce more ozone friendly chemicals.[Japan,
and U.K rejected this plan]

[U.K is the top exporter
of CFC. India
joined M.P in 1992.Now there are 180 countries in this agreement. In India
Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkatta are the top Ozone producing cities.

8.UNEP 9. United Nations Development Programme

10. Global Environment Facility(GEF)

It is a financial
mechanism to meet the agreed environmental costs of measures to meet developing
countries to help them carry out programmes to relieve pressures on global
ecosystems like the areas of biodiversity, climatic change, international
waters and land degradation. The facility supports International Management and
transfer of technologies, which are ecofriendly. It is a cooperative venture
among National governments, the World Bank, the United Nations Development
Programme, and the UNEP in specific areas of concern.

11. Environmental Management Capacity Building
[EMCB] Project

with the view of improving environmental
appraisal process and to incorporate
compliance of the already approved projects in decision making, the ministry undertaken
capacity building programme in the areas of environmental clearance of projects, development of manuals
and guides for the preparation of Environmental Impact Assessment [EIA]. Environmental Management Plan [EMP]
and related matters are assisted by the EMCB projects under the World Bank.

help in environment protection and sustainable development?

They act as major link between Govt.and
community and carry out jobs at the grass root level.

They are recognized by the govt and they can
involve in the matters related to the envt.

They can educate the community and make them
aware of the bad effects of a projects to the environment and draw attention of
international bodies about issues, that are of global concern.

They help in mobilizing people in environmental

Launching programmes that aim at the upliftment
of socially deprived people.

Providing system of information/ data storage
and exchange as indicators of envt quality.

Assisting other organizations in environment

Financing or procuring funds for important
conservation projects.

Organization of workshops and training

Dasholi Gram Swarajya Mandal was set up at
Gopeshwar, Chamoli District, U.P. in 1964. They encourage forest conservation
and the use of forest products for self employment and to reduce soil erosion
by encouraging volunteers to build embankments in the catchments areas and to
plant trees. The world famous Chipko movement was started by this organization.

Some NGOs LEDG- Ladakh Ecology Development Board
set up in 1983working in the Ladakh area
to promote ecological and sustainable development harmonious with the
traditional cultures of the area. They are encouraging the use of renewable
energy sources, promoting organic farming and the making of handicrafts. They
have contributed to the bann of plastics in the area.

Friends of Doon- Working in the Doon valley and
checking deforestation, illegal mining (lime stone), as platform for voicing people’s grievances,
preserving and rehabilitating the envt of the Doon valley, its forests, rivers
and mountains, provides environment education,, Afforestation activities,
encourage the use of non-conventional sources of energy and execution of town beautification schemes.

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Sankar™ -Dark ray

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PostSubject: Re: EE Notes   Thu Dec 27, 2007 8:37 am



Sustainable agriculture is
defined as the agriculture that balances the changing human need for essential
agricultural commodities such as food, fibre etc. with the necessity of
protecting the physical environment and public health, the foundation of

It integrates 3 major goals
such as- 1.Environment health, 2. Economic profitability and 3.Economic and
social equity(enhance the quality of life for farmers and society as a whole).

Need for sustainable agriculture

Population is increasing and the demand for food is
increasing; but at the same time the area of land available for cultivation is
increasing due to chemical farming, urbanisation and human habitation. So to
satisfy present and future food and fibre needs from less lands and have self-sufficiency in food grains

Agriculture is the backbone of
many developing countries and source of export earnings. So to increase the
national economy S.A is needed.

Intensive agriculture and
modern farming practices has pressurized our natural resources and degraded the
quality of air, land and water leading to the decline in crop productivity.

Enhance environment
quality(quality of air, land and water) and the natural resource base upon
which the agricultural economy depends.

Make the most efficient use of
non-renewable resources and on-farm resources and integrate, natural biological
cycles and control.

Sustain economic viability of
farm operations.

Enhance quality of life for

To maintain the health of the

Some of the major
problems of agriculture or Factors that
counter sustainable agriculture

  • Soil erosion because of the use of a) larger machines
    like the high-powered, rubber-tired tractors which plough at high speed
    causing more tillage erosion.,b) geometric ploughing, c)compactness of the
    soil by the use of heavy machines which reduces the water holding capacity
    of the soil and rooting depth which accelerates erosion.
  • Loss of
    genetic and biotic diversity

3. Depletion of water and energy resources

  • Chemical contamination of water, workers, food supply
    because of the excessive use of pesticides and insecticides.
  • Increasing pest and disease problems, as a result of
    monocultures and lack of disease and pest resistant ones.
  • Loss of fertility of the soil because of improper
    agricultural practices
  • Smaller profit gains for the farmers, which compels
    them to shift from agriculture.
  • Lack of skilled labors as they are turning to other
    jobs and conversion of agricultural lands into land for construction.

Essentialities for
sustainable agriculture
It includes adoption of sophisticated
scientific approach that can maintain high yields.

1.Biological continued
conservation of genetic resources is essential if food supplies are to be
increased by encouraging genetically rich countries to conserve wild species of
animals and plants.

2.Conservation of soil and
water to sustain plant productivity. This can be done by different methods like
a)Mixed farming. 2)Mixed cropping. 3)Crop rotation 4)Use of biofertilizers
and biopesticides. 5)Integrated pest management.etc.

3. It should take into
account the topography, soil characteristics, climate, pests, local
availability of inputs and the individual grower’s goals.
Thus selection of
species and varieties well suited to the site is needed.

4.Farmers in developing
countries need fair prices for a produce and better agricultural infra
structure. They need incentives to conserve soil and water resources.

5.Rewarding the farmers in
some way for their stewardship of their land or for the quality of their

6.Providing better
varieties of seeds and modern equipments at a low cost to the farmers.

7.Knowledge of the complex
infiltration between crops( agronomy), pests and pest predators (entomology)to
avoid the need for costly technologies and chemicals.

8.Clear property rights and land
tenure systems provide powerful incentives for owners and tenants to use their
lands in a sustainable way.



(word coined by William S Gaud in1968)

What is green revolution?

The increased production of
food grains both in quality and quantity due to introduction of new and
improved varieties coupled with higher inputs of fertilizers, irrigation and
pesticides is known as Green Revolution. Dr. Norman Borlaug (Nobel peace
price winner 1970)
brought green revolution in the world by developing new
high yielding varieties of wheat. Professor M.S.Swaminathan is the architect of
green revolution in India.
As a result of this there was a boost in the food production from mid 1960s
to the mid 1980s at an annual rate of 2.4%. It was mainly the result of
varieties of rice and wheat developed by the research workers at
Group on International Agricultural research (CGIAR) Institutes, (headquartered
at theWorld Bank in Washington D.C.) in the Philippines (the
International Rice Research Institute IRRI which developed the semi-dwarf
varieties of rice)and in Mexico (International center for maize and Wheat
Improvement CIMMYT producing new varieties by crossing Japanese semi-dwarf
varieties with Mexican wheat).

Methods used in green

Replacement of
traditional farming practices by modern high-powered equipments.

Use of
improved varieties of seeds, which are disease resistant, high yielding and
rich in nutritive content.

Use of
chemical fertilizers and pesticides.

Increase in the
use of irrigation facilities. Large dams were constructed which impounded huge
quantities of water from perennial rivers and stored rainwater to meet
irrigational and growing energy needs.

cropping system in which farmers could harvest two crops in a year instead of
one, one crop based on natural monsoons and the other based on artificial
monsoon in the form of huge irrigation facilities

subsidies to the farmers to buy fertilizers, pesticides and modern equipments.

expansion of farming areas.

Benefits of green

Boost in the
rice and wheat production which resulted in developing nations becoming self
sufficient in food production.

Wheat and rice
became cheaper.

Increased the
quality of big farmers.

Lifted a large
number of poor people (not poor farmers) out of poverty and famine due to the
decreased price of wheat and paddy).

Impact of green revolution
on the environment.

1.Impacts of High Yielding
varieties (HYVs): -It encourages the practice
of monoculture, which can cause total
devastation of the crops if it is attacked by a disease or pathogen. Another
effect was the cultivation of wheat and paddy (soil depleting crops) decreased
the cultivation of legumes,(soil building crops) which helped in nitrogen
fixation. The repeated cultivation of one crop depleted the crop productivity.

2.Impacts of Inorganic fertilizers: -

Micronutrient imbalance:- Excessive use of NPK fertilizers causes imbalance
of micronutrients (such as boron, zinc, iron, copper, manganese etc) in the
soil and adversely affects the productivity of the soil. Eg. The soil in many
parts of North India has become deficient of
micronutrient zinc due to excessive use of chemical fertilizers for wheat and
paddy cultivation.

(ii) Nitrate
: -Nitrates react with the
haemoglobin to form non-functional methaemoglobin, and impairs oxygen
transport. This condition is called blue baby syndrome or methaemoglobanemia,
characterized by blue coloration of the body.

water contamination with nitrates also exists in many parts of our country.

(iii) Eutrophication: - The process
of nutrient enrichment of water bodies which leads

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PostSubject: Re: EE Notes   Thu Dec 27, 2007 8:37 am

to premature ageing of lakes is known as eutrophication.
*The nitrogen and phosphorus

washed off and reach the water bodies along with runoff water. It causes

enrichment of water bodies, leading to profuse growth of algae(blue
green algae) and

totally cover the water surface. This is known as
algal bloom. *It may cuts of

oxygen supply to the aquatic organisms and cause the death of organisms.

photosynthetic activity of the phytoplankton is also affected and the
aquatic organisms

deprived of food and may die. *The algal bloom also releases toxins in water

affect the organisms. *All the wastes accumulate due to lack of oxygen
leading to foul

smell. *Navigation, fishing recreation etc becomes difficult.

Less productive
: -Excess fertilizers affect the homeostatic balance of the

action responsible for the cyclic transfer of materials between the biotic

system and this resulted in less productive fields..

of pesticides and herbicides: -

Resistance in pests: -Continued use of a particular pesticide help make it
resistant to pests because the surviving organisms which escaped the effect of
the pesticides produce the entire population of resistant individuals. Such
pests that have become resistant to all types of pesticides are known as super

Death of non-target
: - Most of the pesticides do not
differentiate between a harmful and useful one. As a result they not only kill
the target ones but also the non target ones like the insects that eat the
brown plant hopper which is a pest of rice.

magnification or biological concentration
-The phenomenon by which certain stable pollutants get accumulated in tissues
in increasing concentration along the food chain is
called bio
magnification or bio concentration
. Highly stable and
non-biodegradable pesticides like D.D.T, other chlorinated hydrocarbons,
parathion, malathion etc can cause bio-magnification.

hydrocarbons in this pesticides
interfere with the calcium metabolism of the birds which affects the formation
of egg shells. Crackled and soft shelled eggs will be produced and it dropped
the reproductive potential of egg laying to zero in many regions. Fishes are
also affected.

Some of these
chemicals like EBD
, a fungicide used on stored grains is found to be
carcinogenic. Organophosphates which is less stable are much more acutely toxic
and can cause eye and skin damage, birth defect, blood and nerve disorders. In
pregnant women it can lead to increased risk of brain cancer, leukemia etc in
children. In adult female it can cause breast cancer also.

Endocrine disruptors:
Many pesticides are
endocrine disruptors, which can cause birth defects, sexual abnormalities, and
reproductive failure. EDChemicals are also called hormone disruptors.

4. Impacts of irrigation: -

Degradation of
the soil
:-Over irrigation of lands for higher
yields of some plants, expansion of agricultural land and due to improper
irrigation has caused waterlogged and flooded areas, making it unsuitable for
the growth of plants.

Salinity: -Irrigation
with canal water often contains dissolved salts. Excessive irrigation causes
flooded areas. Under dry conditions, the water evaporates leaving behind salts
in the upper soil profile. Salinity have adverse effect on crop productivity
and can also lead to desertification..

Decrease in ground
water table:
Over exploitation of ground water for
irrigation has decreased the water table. Cultivation of paddy in Haryana and Punjab, where the rainfall is inadequate, utilize lot of
groundwater to keep the crop field flooded with water. Cultivation of paddy in
these states is mainly responsible for decreasing the water table.

Use of HYV seeds
requires use of heavy irrigation and fertilizers, which has
resulted in rendering large areas of agricultural land as useless because after
achieving dramatic increase in food production in the early stages of green
revolution, yields have been falling in a number of regions which once enjoyed
its prosperity.

The Green Revolution widened the gap between rich and the
poor. The farmers who could afford the expensive agricultural inputs and also
got the support of the State Government for irrigation and subsides in power
supplies, low rate interest on loans etc became rich as they got profit, while
the poor farmers suffered from the same plight they were in due to the lack of

in genetic variability
as geneticallynarrow varieties and breeds that now
dominate agriculture have replaced a multitude of locally adapted varieties.

infrastructure, high transport costs, limited investment in irrigation and
pricing and marketing policies
made green revolution G R technologies too expensive or
inappropriate asset distribution.

9. Bringing large scale land area under cultivation: Transformation of
forests and grasslands under cultivation creates ecological imbalance.

Thus, in short the approach of green revolution has only a narrow focus on
production as it failed in its achievement because it destroys the very
resource base on which agriculture depends.

Impact of DDT

1. Cause bio-magnification.

2. Toxic to embryos and can impair egg-shell
quality in birds.

3. Human carcinogen.

4. Development problems in unborn children

5. increases the risk of breast cancer.

6. Highly toxic to cray fish, sea shrimp and
many other species of fish.



Soil is defined as ‘a dynamic
natural body on the surface of the earth in which plant grow, and is composed
of physical( minerals, water, air and inorganic nutrients) and biological
(organic materials and living forms like microbes, fungi, plants and animals)

Soil is one of the four prime
requisites of life on the earth which supports all living beings on earth.

Different types of soil

soils: -
found in the coastal plains and
river basins and are extremely fertile and support the bulk of the world

soils: -
found in the volcanic regions
and are rich in minerals.

soils: -
also found in the volcanic
regions and are not as fertile as black soils as they are brittle in texture.

4.Laterite soils: -found in regions having a steep
topography and heavy rains. These soils are rendered infertile due to leaching.

soils: -
found in deserts and semi
deserts; dry and porous but can support agriculture with availability of
fertilizers and water. Has over 60% sand with little clay and silt not
exceeding 10% each.

soils: -
confined to mountainous regions.
They are extremely fragile for cultivation of crops.

7.Clay soil:- consists of more than 30% clay with more silt than sand.

Factors necessary for a
healthy soil
: -

contain humus or organic matter which improves tilth (air and moisture
retention capacity) and decreases soil erosion, wind erosion and run-off. It is
a source of food for the decomposers and provides materials for the plant
growth. Soil with 5-15% of humus is best for agricultural crops. So it is known
as the soul and heart of the soil. The process of formation of
humus is known as humification.

2.Should be coarse enough to
allow air pockets where exchange of various gases can occur, since the roots
and soil organisms require oxygen.

3.Should be porous enough to
allow water and dissolved nutrients to move through easily.

contain decomposing microorganisms, which are needed for the biogeochemical
cycles. Soil organisms are called edaphons such as bacteria, fungi, algae,
protozoans, earthworms, rotifers, molluscs, arthropods, etc.

5. A pH suited to the crops.
Most crops require neutral pH of range 6.5-7.5. Soil pH ranges from 4.5-10.

6. Micro and macro elements
needed for the growth of plants. The inorganic constituents of soil are clay,
silt,( needed for holding water and essential nutrients) sand, and small
fragments of the original rock(needed for making soil porous, for holding finer
particles apart and for the easy ciculation of air and water)

Soil organic matter, which is considered as primary attribute of soil
quality assessment. It influences many soil properties like (i) infiltration
rate (ii) bulk density (iii) aggregate stability (iv) cation exchange capacity
(v) biological activity. SOM serves a s a slow- release reservoir for plant
micro-nutrients. It allows the infiltration of water and air into the soil,
increases water retension by the soil and is important in

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PostSubject: Re: EE Notes   Thu Dec 27, 2007 8:37 am

maintaining soil tilth. It
increases the growth of many beneficial soil organisms which enhance biological
control of pests and plant disease.

Role of soil biota in
maintaining soil health:

Soil engineers
include the worms and termities, which help in mixing soil horizons and organic
matter and increasing porosity.

  • Helps in decomposition processes and nutrient cycling.

Helps in the break
down of wastes and pollutants.

They will protect
crops from pest and disease outbreaks through biological control and reduced


1.Serves as medium: -in which plants grows and it depends upon soil texture,
organic matter, aeration, water holding capacity etc.

2.As a source of nutrients: -needed for the proper growth and development. Plants take
in these nutrients through their roots. Soil nutrients are replenished by the
action of microbes involved in the biogeochemical cycles. The organic matter
contained in the soil is a rich storehouse of critical nutrients(mineralizable
nitrogen.)and also a source of food for the decomposers which is very vital for
the soil.

3.As a source of water and
for the plants. Soil holds
water and air in the inter spaces of soil particles and the plants absorb it
through the roots. Soil water may be gravitational, capillary hygroscopic or
combined. Total water present in the soil is called holard. The amount
of water that can be absorbed out of holard is called as chesard. The
remaining unabsorbed water is called as echard.

will be affected if the
soil is not fertile or is degraded. The economic well-being of a nation
is intricately linked with the fertility and abundance of soil resources

responsible for the degradation of the soil.

  • Use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides.
  • Deforestation that causes soil erosion and loss of
    soil fertility.
  • Overgrazing that causes soil erosion and loss of soil
  • Improper irrigation system that makes the soil saline
    due to water logged areas.

Improper crop patterns
like the lack of crop rotation, mixed cropping, alternate cropping etc that
make the soil infertile.

  • Mining activities that cause water logged and flooded
    areas that make the soil sterile.

Injudicious use of land
like the conversion of forests into farmlands, replacement of low rainfall
grasslands by wheat crops etc which cause desertification.

  • Use of hillsides that have fragile and thin soil for
  • Repeated intensive tilling of soil for continuous
    farming using modern heavy equipments make the soil powdery and more prone
    to wind and water erosion. It also kills the microorganisms present in the

Population pressure that cause farming to expand on more fragile soils.

for the conservation of the soil or for maintaining the fertility of the soil.

of organic manures and bio fertilizers.

of biopesticides and bioherbicides.

of mixed farming, mixed cropping, alternate cropping, fallow periods etc.

of lands on slopes to prevent soil erosion.

of the degraded land.

of deforestation and overgrazing.

bunding and contour ploughing.

steps to conserve water which is very essential for the crops.

of wind breaks to prevent the crops from damage due to wind and also wind

10.Use of
proper irrigation system, that will not cause water logging and flooding.

Pedogenesis: -The
formation of soil is known as pedogenesis. Soil is formed by the weathering of

Pedology: -The study of soil.
It is also called as edaphology or soil science.

responsible for the formation of the soil.

1.Nature of the parent rock. Clay from shales, Sand
grains from sandstone.

2.The topography. It is more in steep slopes and in plains
and gentle slopes.

3.The climate
of the area. Temperature and rain play an important role in soil formation.

organisms in the soil create space for air and water to pass through the soil.

duration of time. The longer the time for the soil formation, the deeper it

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PostSubject: Re: EE Notes   Thu Dec 27, 2007 8:38 am



Irrigation system

process of watering the crops in the field where rainfall is insufficient,
irregular or falls only seasonally and due to the urgent need to grow more food
for the rising population is called irrigation.

Depending on topography,
climate, soil structure and level of technology different methods of irrigation
systems are adopted.
Macro irrigation is
used where large scale use of water is needed

Canal system: -consists of elaborate system of man-made canals and its
distributaries(field channels), which receives water from one or more
reservoirs or rivers. In order to provide adequate water to all the fields when
the water supply is insufficient, a rotation system also called water
bandhi(intermittent water delivery method ) is adopted, so that each field or
groups of fields are given water by rotation. This system is most common in
fertile river basins of the world. Pakisthan has the densest canal
irrigation system on which its entire agricultural system is depended.

Wells: -have been one of the oldest systems of irrigation and
play an important role in harvesting water for irrigation. It is constructed in
areas where exploitable ground water is available. They are of two types. A)Dug
wells- common where ground water is not deep. Water from these wells is lifted
by different mechanical methods or electric power and supplied to the fields
through the channels. It is called lift irrigation. B)Tube wells: -Green
Revolution popularized the use of tube wells. They are used for tapping huge
quantities of ground water from deeper strata. Diesel or electricity run pumps
are used for lifting water from wells. This water is then fed to the fields
through channels and distributaries.

River valley
-is based on areas which have
high rainfall in four- five month period. As a result, there is high run- off
and discharge flows in the rivers during rainy season. This is followed by
drying up during the rabi season. In the valleys and on the slopes of
valleys perennial crops such as coconuts, arecanuts [supari] coffee, rubber, tapioca are cultivated.
The bottom lands of the valleys are used for cultivating a single rice crop.

Flood or furrow
- In this irrigation several ditches are dug. Plants are
sown in the raised beds and water is distributed in the entire field through
unlined ditches or furrows. It is used for close grown crops like such as rice,
where fields are level and water is abundant. In an extremely leveled farm some
parts of it may suffer from water-logging while other parts remain dry.
Depending upon
heat, soil porosity, wind large amount of water may be lost
before it is absorbed by plants.

Terracing: -Large steps are cut into hillsides and are supported by
stone or concrete walls. The level parts are then used as small fields. As
water flows down the hillside it is canalized to each plot normally by ditch
irrigation. It is usually a labor-intensive technique and it makes difficult to
mechanize the work. Moreover the walls need constant maintenance specially in
rainy climates.

Overhead or
sprinkler irrigation
: -Water is piped to one or more central locations within the
field. It is distributed by overhead high-pressure sprinklers or guns or by
low-pressure sprays so that moisture reaches the root end of the crop. This
type of system is commonly used in lawns, golf courses, parks etc. The major
drawback of this irrigation is that much of the water is lost due to high winds
or evaporation. Irrigating the entire field uniformly becomes difficult or
tedious. Sometimes water remains on the plant leaves which may promote fungal
and other diseases.

Trickle drip irrigation: -
It is
helpful in dealing with salination problems and in conserving water through
evaporation. Method :- Water is collected from a well or stream
into a tank and mixed with appropriate
amounts fertilizers, pesticides etc and this water is supplied through underground perforated pipes or pipes placed
on the surface and so the soils do not build up enough to make water uptake
difficult. Water is emitted through an emitter that release the water at the
appropriate location. Thus in this system plant roots are continuously provided
with water. It has gained wide acceptance
in Israel, t
he US
and other countries in the 1970s.


Is a
traditional irrigation system which was applied in row crops under cover,
fruits and berries, home gardens green house and nurseries where small scale
use of water is needed. Its advantages are

Water saving,:
-conveyance loss, evaporation, run-off and deep percolation are reduced.

Energy savings: - A
smaller power unit is required.

Weed and disease
reduction: -as limited area is watered.

Can be automated by
adding fertilizers and chemicals.

Problems with

Accumulation of salt
in the soil which stunts and prevent plant growth. In areas where the drainage
is bad and water table approaches the root level , the concentrated salt makes
plant growth impossible.

Excess use of ground
water and surface water for irrigation
cause depletion of water and change of habitats.

Overdraft: -a
condition that results when water is removed from a source more quickly than it
can be naturally replenished. It cause the land above an aquifer to sink and
fill the space once occupied by water.

Sometimes irrigation
water which contains dissolved pesticides and fertilizers runs off the land at
fast speed and carry away topsoil and gets drained into the rivers etc making
them polluted.

Large area of forest
is destroyed as a result of the construction of canals and reservoirs.

Factors noted for
sucssessful irrigation system]

Good drainage
systems, which keep the water table well below the root level using tubewells.

Allow water to
flush through topsoil.

Knowledge of the
ability of the soil to store water

Excess salts should
be removed from the system in regions where is excess drainage

Whatever water is
available in the arid regions must be used efficiently.

Proper managing of
irrigation system

Sub irrigation involves delivering water from to plants from beneath
the soil. It is usually done in areas where ground water table is near the
ground surface. In this type of irrigation water is collected in ditches where
water percolates naturally through the soil into the water table and reaches
the plant roots.

is the area of land surrounding a river or lake that provides all the water
which enters the river or lake .For e.g.: When precipitation fall on a water
shed, the water is delivered to the lake or river in smaller surface streams or
through underground aquifers. Water sheds aid in controlling the amount of
water in a river or lake and also act as a natural water purifier.


the optimum utilization and systemic consumption of land, water and forest
resources within a land, community or a watershed. It involves the continuous
participation of the people living in that area. Operation of watershed
management is ideal where the rain fall pattern is very short, uneven and there
is no subject of minor and major irrigation systems to enhance agricultural
production. The principle of integrated watershed management is the proper
management of all the precipitation by way of collection, storage and efficient
utilization of run-off water and use of ground water, by allowing the
absorption of water in the soil and to control excess discharge into the
springs and rivers. It aims at improving livelihoods and overall development of
a community and its people. The management of a single unit of land with its
water drainage system is called watershed management.


Use of
organic manures and bio-fertilizers
: -
Manures are organic
substances like compost, vermin compost, green manure, cow dung etc that are
produced by the decomposition of plant and animal waste by their action of
microbes. It is rich in humus and releases many nutrients into the soil.
Organic farming
is the practice of growing crops without depending on
synthetic fertilizers or synthetic pesticides.


1.bind together soil
particles and granules and such soil are easy to till as they are well aerated
and have a high infiltration rate.
rich balanced nutrients to the soil and thus convert uncultivated land into
fertile land.

rich in humus which improves soil texture, and can prevent soil erosion by
forming a cover over the soil.

4.both water retention and
percolation in the soil is accelerated.

5.Facilitates the growth
of soil organisms which act upon the
nutrients and prevent leaching of major nutrients of the soil. They provide
food for soil organisms, which help in making nutrients available to

6.Enhance the resistance
power of the crops against diseases and pests.

toxic organic chemicals by the action of decomposers.

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PostSubject: Re: EE Notes   Thu Dec 27, 2007 8:38 am

8. Do not change the chemical composition of the soil and even excessive
amounts of it do not harm the soil like the chemical fertilizers.

9. Saves money and improves health of the community.


1.Being bulky manures
are inconvenient to handle, store and transport.

nutrients of manures are released slowly, hence are unable to keep pace with
the high and rapid demand of nutrients to the improved high yielding varieties
of crops.

These manures are not nutrient specific, so are not of much help when a
specific nutrient is required for a particular crop.

4. The amount of nitrogen, phosphorous and
potassium is very less than that of chemical fertilizers (1/20 th).

of manures.

: Decomposed mixture of
cattle excreta (dung) and urine and crop residues such as remnants of straw and
plant stalks used to feed cattles, and it contain .5% N, .15% P pentaoxide and
.5%K2O. It not only supplies a large quantity of macro and micro- nutrients but
also improves the physio-chemical and biological properties and soil health.

2.Compost: also called synthetic manure
is prepared from farmyard waste and town refuge like sewage waste. It is
allowed to decompose by the action of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms
(such as bacteria, fungi and actinomyces)and it may take 3-6 months before it
is ready for use.

refers to the use of under
plant material to improve the soil fertility. It is done by growing plants like
sweet clover, red clover, alfalfa etc belonging to the leguminous family, which
are plowed into the soil during spring before the summer crops are grown. It
gives the plant the required quantity of nitrogen.

are microorganisms, such
as bacteria, cyan bacteria (blue green bacteria which are
extremely low cost bio-fertilizers
present in the soil), mycorrhizal fungi etc which are biologically active and
bring about nutrient enrichment in the soil by the enhancement of nitrogen,
phosphorus and other minerals in soil.

Rhizobium is a nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the root nodules of
legume plants. It can fix 40-120 kgs of N per acre annually, depending on the
crop, rhizobium species and environmental conditions.

Frankia is another N(most
important of all nutrients) fixing bacteria in the root nodules of non legume

Azolla-Anabaena is symbiotic nitrogen fixing cyan bacteria, which
resides in the leaf cavities of the fern azolla, and fixes a part of the
nitrogen there. [The decaying fern plants release the same for the utilization
of the rice plants. During harvest when the field is dry the fern functions as
green manure, decomposing and enriching the field for the next crop. Acetobacter
for sugar cane only

insoluble forms of soil phosphorus into soluble forms so that phosphorus is
easily available to plants.

of bio-fertilizers

1.Aid in replenishing and maintaining long-term soil
fertility by providing optimal conditions for soil biological activity.

2.Degrade toxic organic chemicals by the action of

3.Interact with other soil organisms and biodegradable
components in the soil to supply essential nutrients such as nitrogen,
phosphorus, calcium, cupper etc.

4.Provide protection against diseases associated with
numerous fungi.

5.Improve soil porosity, drainage and aeration, improve
water-holding capacity.

6.Promote the break up of unproductive soil, turning it into
a productive growing medium.

7.Aid in rebuilding depleted soil.

8.Aid in reducing soil erosion.

9.Save money.



They are the
source of nutrients manufactured commercially from chemicals. They are
inorganic or organic compounds containing necessary plant nutrients such as
nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium.

of fertilizers

are in the concentrated form so they are less bulky and is easy to store,
transport and apply

2.They are nutrient
specific and fulfill the requirement of a particular nutrient.

soluble in water, they are easily released and is readily absorbed by crops.

higher amounts of nutrients and therefore used in very small quantities and
satisfy the nutrient requirements of HYV plants and increase crop yield.

of fertilizers

1.It gets washed off
through irrigation, rainfall and drainage and reach rivers, lakes, streams and pollute them. It
even polluted the ground water.

2.Change the natural
composition of the soil and affect plant growth.

3.Natural processes that
favour nutrient retention and transfer among plants and soil organic matter are
not taking place as the farmers over dosed their crops with the fertilizers.

4.Manufacturing of these
fertilizers also creates pollution.

5.After the run-off the
crops will be deficient in nutrients till the next application

of chemical fertilizers

1.At the time of
sowing- Potassium and phosphate fertilizers.

the time of irrigation-Nitrogenous fertilizers- either direct application or
dissolving in irrigation water.

on standing crop-Urea and other water-soluble nitrogenous fertilizers are

4.Timing of the application of fertilizers to coincide with the growing and flowering of crops is
needed so that the crops will use fertilizers more quickly and completely.

the soil and applying only the needed fertilizers.



cultivation crops are infested with a variety of pests. These pests include
weeds, insects, mites, nematodes, rodents and plant pathogens such as fungi,
bacteria, and viruses. The major factors responsible for the growth of pests
include I) Monoculture practices. 2) Elimination of natural pest predators 3)
increased immunity to pesticides and weedicides due to the continuous use of a
particular pesticide.4) Lack of crop rotation, alternate cropping etc.5) Change
in the climate.6) Nutritional deficiencies 7) Soil-moisture disturbances. Cool
use of unclean and inhealthy seeds.

In India, the the Indian Crop
Protection Association(ICPA)
is responsible for crop protection.

are different methods for controlling the plants from pests and diseases.

1.Pesticides: -Chemical compounds which kill the pests and protect our
crops from the damage.

commonly used pesticides include

Insecticides- used to kill insects (DDT, BHC, Aldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor,
Parathion, Malatheon.

Weedicides or herbicides-for killing the weeds eg, 2-4-5-T, 2-4-T, monuron,

Fungicides-for killing the fungi O Phenol, CAPTAN.

-Sodium fluro acetate, atrychnine.

Advantages of chemical pesticides

1.Protect the crops from

crop yield

to apply and have immediate effect.

4.Most of the modern
pesticides are target specific and short-lived in the environment. So can be
applied properly.

preventive measures for protecting the crops from pests.

of resistant varieties:
Plants which are resistant to these diseases and pests
should be produced by biotechnology. Biotechnology can also be used in making
plants that that have the natural ability to repel the pests, diseases and

rotation and cropping system
: -
cultivation of
different crops like leguminous and non-leguminous crops in successive seasons
on the same piece of land.. eg. First year maize, second year cotton, third
year groundnuts, and fourth year maize. It ensures that disease-causing
organisms do not accumulate in the soil and help to increase the crop yields
and increases pest resistivity in the soil.

3.Mixed cropping:
cultivation of different crops on the
same piece of land at the same time.

Clean cultivation and summer ploughing
Warm and humid climate is more condusive for infestation of
insect pests and diseases. Deep ploughing during the summer season kills pests,
larvae and eggs. Changing the growth conditions of the plants and use of clean
and healthy seeds also useful.

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PostSubject: Re: EE Notes   Thu Dec 27, 2007 8:38 am

of Bio-pesticides

biological agents or substances derived from plants and animals used for
controlling pests, weeds, insects and pathogens. The microorganisms used as
bio-pesticides are viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi and mites.

is a substance extracted from chrysanthemums, a kind of flower.

from neem tree is another bio pesticide.

protein produced from the spores of soil bacterium kill the larvae of some
insects.(This was the first bio pesticide to be used on a commercial scale in
the world.

4. Wood ash used to
destroy soft-bodied insects.

5. Mexican marigold is
used to destroy many insects and pests.

Bio-insecticides: -are biological agents that are used for controlling
harmful insects. They include

1.Predators, which feed on the pests, can be
employed. Eg. Ladybird and praying mantis used in

combating scale insects or aphids
which feed on plant sap.

and pathogens, which destroy the pests. Eg. Baculovirus heliothis (a virus) can
control Cotton bollworm, Bacillus thuringenesis (a bacterium) can attack the
cabbage looper and entomophthora ignobils, a fungus can fight the green peach
aphid of potato.

Bio-herbicides: -are specific organism or chemicals that inhibits or
destroys the growth of weeds at unwanted places without harming the useful

crops such as barley, rye, sorghum, millet, soybean and sunflower, sweet clover
and alfalfa do not allow weeds to grow near by because they eliminate weeds
through chemicals.

insects(cochineal insects) feed on the weeds(cacti). (Biological pest control
which is the control of pest by another pest.) Indian mynah bird was sent to Mauritius to
aid in controlling the Red locust.

control of diseses
I) Fungi-Trichoderma
species against root rot of ground nut. Bacteria-Psudomonas fluorescens and P.
putida control the soft rot of potato.

fungi protect the plants against several pathogens by increasing the
nutritional status in the roots, thereby giving resistence. It also bring about
biochemical and structural changes in the host tissues and may act as a barrier
to check the entry of pathogens into the host.

6.Proper application of

of the modern pesticides are target specific and short-lived in the
environment. So can be applied properly in correct dose and time depending on
the pest.

7. Use of pheromone
trap and light traps.

Control measures
of the insect pests of major crop

Name of the crop

Nature of damage

Control measure


1.Gundhy bug

2.Leaf hopper

Attack during post flowering

Attack on leaves

Spray monocrotophos

Spray monocrotophos


White grub

Feed on roots. Adult beetles
feed on leaves.

Apply thimet granules before sowing

Name of the crop

Name of disease and pathogen


Control measures.



Brown boat shaped lesions appear on the leaves

Seed treatment with thiram
solution in water.

Spray bavistin at 10 days interval.



Yellow, brown or black elongated spots appear on

Spray dithane solution in water at 10 days interval.

measures of the diseases of major crops.

of plant diseases demands the judicious integration of all available
techniques, biological, cultural and chemical, as each has its place in
reducing the burden that pathogenic fungi place on
the quantity and quality of the global harvest. Plant
diseases are incited by micro-organisms, parasitic flowering plants,
roundworms, viruses. In India,
The Directorate of Plant Protection and Quarantine was established in Delhi. Quarantine is the
best way to control diseases, which means to exclude diseased crops from the
area of sphere in which the host plants are being grown. Some of the plant
materials have been totally banned for import into India irrespective of any
certificate. E.g. Import of cocoa from Africa and Sri Lanka is totally banned.

Advantages of Bio- pesticides

Ensure human and
environment safety and improves our health.

Control pests that
have developed resistance to chemical pesticides.

Does not harm
non-target organisms and beneficial microorganisms.

Are biodegradable
and hence do not cause biomagnification.

Do not leave toxic

Improves the soil
fertility as the beneficial organisms are not killed


  • Are non-target specific.
  • Effective in only certain types of soil.
  • Action is very slow and hence it can cause economic loss due to
    the loss of crops.
  • Not effective for all pests.
  • If not applied at the right time in right concentration
    application may not be much effective.
  • High cost of bio-pesticide also is another limitation for the
    farmers to buy.
  • Some of the biological control by using pests to
    control pest may becomes dangerous
    when the pest which feed on our crop pest multiply beyond our control.




Nitrate pollution

a) By leaching excess nitrate moves below the root zone and
cause ground water contamination, making it unfit for human consumption.

Blue baby
-High concentration of
nitrites in infants cause blue baby syndrome, or methaemoglobinemia
characterized by blue coloration of the body. The nitrites interfere with the
oxygen carrying capacity of the hemoglobin and cuts off oxygen supply to the
tissues. In adults the nitrites is converted into nitrates.

Presence of
secondary amines causes nitrosomine illness and even cancer in humans.

Excess use of
urea in rice fields promotes the growth of vectors causing human disease called
Japanese encephalitis.

Eutrophication: -It is the process of enrichment of water bodies with
nutrients particularly nitrates and phosphates, which results in the excessive
growth of algae and higher aquatic plants. This process cuts off oxygen supply
to the deeper layers. Thus fish and other aquatic organisms will not get
sufficient oxygen for breathing. Phytoplankton cannot prepare food because of
the lack of gaseous exchange and this also affects the aquatic life. Aerobic
decomposition does not take place leading to foul smell and accumulation of
waste. Navigation also becomes difficult.

Some fertilizers
acidify the soil and deplete their nutrients and make the soil infertile
ie.unsuitable for the growth of plants.

fertilizers disrupt the homeostatic balance of the crucial bacterial action
that is responsible for the natural nutrient cycles of the soil. They hinder
the activities of the nitrogen fixing organisms and detritivores within the
soil as biological nitrogen fixation is favoured only where soil nitrogen
fertility is fairly low.

application of potash fertilizers decreases vitamin c (ascorbic acid) and
carotene content in vegetables and fruits.

of the fertilizers commonly used: -
urea, and mureate of potash, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate, calcium ammonium
nitrate, super phosphate etc.

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PostSubject: Re: EE Notes   Thu Dec 27, 2007 8:39 am


  • These pesticides kill even the beneficial organisms present in
    the soil such as decomposers, pollinators, predators of pests etc.
  • They are highly stable and often enter the food chain
    and their toxic concentration goes on increasing at the successive trophic
    levels and prove to be hazardous to the organism at the higher trophic
    level. This is called as bio magnification. Eg.DDT.(
  • Organic pesticides, which are chlorinated
    hydrocarbons, are usually persistent and is cancer inducing.
  • Chlorinated hydrocarbons interfere with the calcium metabolism
    in the body of birds resulting in the formation of thin-shelled eggs,
    which gets destroyed before hatching.
  • Persistent pesticides when present in the irrigated water or
    when mixed with water seep from the soil surface and cause ground water
    . During run-off during rain it enters the water bodies.
  • Consistent use of the pesticides and herbicides to
    control pests and weeds leads to the development of resistance among pests
    and vectors leading to the formation of super pests and super weeds.
  • Cause destruction of biodiversity and extinction of species.
  • Affects the ecological balance due to the extinction of species
    as every species is having its own significance in the food chain.

Some of the pesticides that are
banned: -D.D.T
(banned in USA in 1972), aldrin, dialdrin,
endrine, heptachlorohexane(HCH) endosulphan, Benzene hexa chloride(BHC) EDB
Ethylidine di bromide.



1.Mixed farming: -

It is
a system of farming on a particular farm to sustain and satisfy the essential
needs of the farmers. Mixed farming includes crop production, rearing of live
stock, poultry, fish, and bee keeping (apiculture). The mixed farming system
depends largely on the following factors:

Quality of soil

Quality of live
stock (domestic animals like cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat etc.)



Water facilities

Available technology


Some of the farming systems: -

farming system: -
It involves growing food crops such as wheat,
maize, rice, bajra and fodder crops like sorghum, oat and berseem.

system: -It includes raising crops along with trees. It combines agriculture
with forestry. Eg maize is grown in the interspaces of Acacia trees.

(iii)Horti-pastoral system: -It
involves growing fodder grasses with fruit trees. Thus mixed farming is an
integrated approach of farming system, which can help in safe guarding the
sustainable agricultural production.

Advantages of mixed farming; -

1.It gives better income to farmers.

2.It provides work to the farmer
throughout the year.

3. It allows more efficient use
of land and other resources.

4.Reduces the risk of


1.Farmers have to divide their
attention and resources over several activities, thus leading to reduced
economies of scale.


It is
the practice of growing of two or more crops simultaneously on the same piece
of land. It is an old practice in our country where farmers used to mix the
seeds of two crops and sow in the fields that are not subjected to irrigation
or under rain fed conditions where there was risk of crop failure due to lack
of water. The basic objective in mixed cropping is to minimize the risk and
ensure against the crop failure due to abnormal whether conditions.

Crop combinations used in mixed cropping.

Some of the important
combinations of crops used by farmers for mixed cropping in our country are:

Wheat + Mustard

Wheat +Chick pea

Barley + Chickpea

Soybean +Pigeon pea

Maize +Urd bean

Pigeon pea + Mung

Cotton +Mung bean

Ground nut+

Sorghum + Pigeon

Criteria for the selection of the crops for Mixed

Following are the main criteria
for selecting the component crops for mixed cropping.

One crop should be
of short duration (early maturing) and the other should of long duration (late

The component crops
should have different canopy height, i.e., one should be tall growing and the
other is short growing for efficient interception of sunlight.

One crop should be
shallow rooted and the other should be shallow rooted in order to tap nutrients
and moisture from the different depths of the soil profile.

One crop should
require less water than then other.

The requirements of
nutrients of one crop should be less than the other.

The crops should
possess non-overlapping susceptibility to pests and diseases.

Introduction of legumes to promote biological nitrogen-fixation and
increase protein availability.

both the component crops in mixed cropping are of same nature, there will be
severe competition among them for the basic needs.

Advantages of Mixed cropping

cropping has following advantages:

risk of crop failure
. When two crops of
different nature are grown simultaneously, one crop supports the other and
there is no risk of total failure due to uncertain climatic conditions.

Variety of produce.
Mixed cropping
yields variety of produce like cereals, pulses or vegetables or fodder to meet
the requirement of the family as well as livestock.

Increase in yield
. Due to complementary
effect of component crops, yield of both crops is increased. For example,
legume crops have beneficial effect on cereal or other non-legume crops.

Improvement in soil fertility.
If a
cereal crop is allowed to grow in a field, it will deplete more nutrients.
However, growing of a cereal crop with legume crop will help in building soil

Minimizing pest damage.
Generally crops
of a particular group are more susceptible to a particular type of pests (such
as weeds, insects and diseases) infestation, when different crops are grown
together, changes of pest infestation are greatly reduced.

the growing of two or more crops simultaneously in the same field in definite
row pattern. One row of crop pattern followed one,
two or three rows of inter crops.


growing of different crops on a piece of land in a pre-planned succession is
called crop-rotation. Depending upon the duration, crop rotation may be of
following three types.

Types of crop rotation

Crops involved in rotation

(i) One year rotation

(a) Maize-Mustard

(b) Rice-Wheat

(ii) Two years rotation

(a) Maize-Mustard-Sugarcane-Methi

(b) Maize-Potato-Sugarcane-Potato

(iii)Three year rotation



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PostSubject: Re: EE Notes   Thu Dec 27, 2007 8:39 am

Points that should be noted while making selection
of crops for rotation

(i)Source of moisture (through
rain or irrigation)

(ii)Status of nutrients in the

(iii)Availability of inputs
(such as fertilizers, pesticides. Manpower and machine power)

(iv)Duration of crop(short or

(v)Marketing and processing

crops are included in crop rotation programmes to build up soil fertility.
Crops requiring high fertility level may be grown after growing legumes. The
crops which require high inputs(e.g. sugarcane, potato, maize, wheat and
rice)may be grown before low input requiring crops. It helps in maintaining
soil fertility. Generally crops of same family should not be repeatedly grown
in the same field to prevent depletion of specific nutrients from the soil and
building up of diseases and insect pests.


(i)Crop rotation helps in
replenishment of soil fertility.

(ii)It prevents depletion of
selective nutrients.

(iii)It prevents building up of
diseases and pests of particular crop.

(iv)It enhances the production
by increasing the soil fertility.


agriculture requires a commitment to change public policies, economic
institutions and social values.

food system extends far beyond the farm and involves the interaction of
individuals and institutions with contrasting and often competing goals, which
often change with new technologies and with political influences. It includes farmers, input suppliers,
researchers, farm-workers, farm advisors, consumers, processors, retailers and
policy makers.

should focus to increase the production of food grains without damaging the
natural resources. Thus eco-friendly techniques are needed for sustainable
agriculture so that our economic growth may also be a sustainable growth.

Areas where changes are needed

food and agricultural policies to promote environmental health, economic
profitability and social and economic equity.(modifying tax and credit
policies, providing subsidies etc)

land use policies so that prime soils are protected and development is
regulated. It includes helping farmers to adopt practices that reduce chemical
use and conserve resources, and proper education.

and programmes to increase the social standards and legal protection of the
agriculture labours.

development policies to encourage more diversified agricultural production on
family farms (crop varieties)as a foundation for healthy economies in rural

to broaden consumer perspectives so that
environmental quality, resource use and social equity issues are also
considered in shopping decisions.

new policies and institutions to enable producers using sustainable practices
to market their goods.




It is
asustainable long-term approach of pest control which involves the use of
several tactics of natural methods of pest control as far as possible and using
pesticides only when it is essential and that also in minimum concentration. It
is much more complex than simple application of chemical biocides.

advantages are I) effective ii)economical iii)improves health of the community
iv) improves soil fertility v)least harmful to the environment vi) decreases
the dependence on chemical fertilizers

main strategy used in the IPM is structural and the procedural modifications of
the pest by reducing food, water, shelter and access used by pests.

The steps in integrated pest management

(i)Biological organisms or the
products of biological origin are used to control pests.

(ii)The biological control methods may be accompanied
with soil conditioning, rotation of crops and improved sanitation practices.

(iii)Planting a trap crop around a field or mixed with
economic crop to attract the insects so that they do not concentrate solely on
the agricultural crop.

(iv) A pest that control the
pest which may be predator, parasite or disease which attack the harmful insect
only. Since it is highly specific for a particular pest other beneficial
insects are not affected.

(v)Under unavoidable circumstances chemical pesticides
are sprayed using modified techniques in which less amount of pesticide covers
a large area.

Thus IPM programme favours biological control methods,
which are ecologically safe, target specific and harmless to other life forms.
But this requires time, money, patience, short and long term planning,
flexibility and commitment.

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PostSubject: Re: EE Notes   Thu Dec 27, 2007 8:39 am



is a part of applied biology, which
uses living organisms(microorganisms, plant or animal cells) or their products
for commercial purposes or to solve practical problems. It is multidisciplinary
with foundation in many fields including cell and molecular biology,
physiology, immunology, microbiology, genetics, biochemistry and chemical

Old biotechnology:-involves
producing products like curd, vinegar, wine, bread etc and other organic
compounds like vinegar antibiotics etc where the natural capabilities of the
organisms and cells are exploited.

New biotechnologies:-involves
modification or new combinations of the organisms using recombinant
technologies in which desired gene could be isolated from an organism and
transferred into another organism. The organisms with the foreign genes are
called transgenic organisms OR Genetically Modified Organisms(GM
Genes are injected from one
organism into a fertilized egg or into embryonic cells of another organism,
which then becomes part of its DNA and is inherited by all the cells formed
during the embryonic development. Transgenic microorganismsare produced
to obtain new kinds of pharmaceutical proteins. It is now possible to produce
genetic material according to our choice. These GM crops contributed
significantly to the reduced green house gas emissions from agricultural


.Herbicide tolerance in crops is now possible by
transferring genes resistant to herbicides to the genome of commercial
crops(rice, wheat, tobacco, maize, potatoes and vegetables)

Vaccines to ward off plant and livestock diseases.

Different types of cultures like hybridization,
tissue culture, embryo culture, meristem culture and protoplast culture which
are used to improve disease resistance in many crops.

Hybridization: -It is the
method of producing new crop varieties in which two or more plants of unlike
genetical constitution belonging to same species or different genera are
crossed together. This has been used to produce crop plants that are more
drought resistant, disease resistant and frost resistant.

Tissue culture: refers to
the invitro cultivation of all plant parts (having desirable characters like
disease resistance) including plant cells, tissues and organs under aseptic
conditions. The basis of cell and tissue culture is totipotency.

Meristem culture: -(i)
used to establish stock material for ornamental plants that are free of fungi
and bacteria. Systematic pathogens, present in the meristems (stem tips) will
grow out into the culture medium when established in culture medium. These
ex-plants free of pathogens (not disease resistant) are grown up, transferred
to a green house and indexed an additional two times for systemic
pathogens.(ii)Meristem culture can also be used for micro-propagation which
provides pathogen free plant material (so that chemical control is not needed)
that replace seed pieces which are often systematically treated. (iii) Addition
of thermo therapy or antiviral compounds allows culturing of larger stem tips
that are virus free and take relatively less time to grow.

Embryo Rescue: -(i) To ensure
survival of embryo that is formed as a result of cross between distantly

species that posses desired genes by
growing them in artificial culture medium which provides the necessary

nutrients. Eg, Etuberosum, a
wild non-tuber bearing potato posses the gene resistant to potato leaf roll virus
(PLRV) This trait was successfully introduced in tuber bearing Solanum by
growing the embryo in culture medium. Oryza minuta, a wild variety which
posses the resistant gene for blast and blight disease of paddy was crossed
with the commercial line variety Oryza sativa and resulted in progeny
that were resistant to these disease by embryo risk technique. (ii)Embryo
rescue also allow recovery of plants between species where crossing barriers
exist due to sexual compatibility. E.g. A gene encoding crystal protein (cry
protein) called cry gene, has been isolated from a soil bacterium Bacillus
thuringiensis, and transformed into a number of crops. This protein is toxic to
larvae of certain insects and thus provide resistance to the GM crops against
specific insects.

The shelf life of fruits of tomato variety Flavr
Savr has been improved by blocking the native gene(with the help of transgene)
which synthesizes the enzyme that promotes
softening of fruits.

A variety of Brassica napus containing
hirudin (a protein that prevent blood clotting) has been developed by
transferring a chemically synthesized gene encoding hirudin.

Biotechnology has also helped in the improvement of
crops also such as high yield , high vitamin content(golden rice), high protein

Biotechnology can be used in making plants having
natural ability to repel the pests, diseases and weeds.

Development of genetically improved crops which are
adaptable to a specific set of environment (climate).


  • Majority
    of the developing countries have limited practical access to the tools and
    germplasn necessary to apply more sophisticated biotechnology research to
    their national needs because of the lack of financial, scientific and
    technological resources.
  • Production
    of herbicide-resistant super weeds. When copied genes from one species
    inserted into another may spread to other organisms (weeds) if it escapes
    that species may develop resistance against pesticides.
  • Sudden
    collapse of monoculture operations and valuable breeds due to calamities
    or pests or diseases. (So poly cultures are preferred so that there will
    be greater biological stability. In monocultures plants with disease
    resistance against one or two diseases may not have resistance against
    other diseases).
  • Unintended
    harm to the native species by thedominance of genetically modified
  • Introduction
    of biological warfare through the creation of bacteria and viruses that
    could have catastrophic effects and initiate a genetic arms race.
  • Opponents
    of genetic engineering are concerned about the potential fro accidental
    introduction of new toxins, allergens and pathogens into the environment.


  • Sustainable
    utilization of genetic resources for food.
  • Apomixes,
    an asexual technology of plant reproduction that can provide economic
    incentives to replant harvested seeds.
  • Generation
    of higher nutrient levels (iron and vitamins) in nutrient deficient staple
    crops. Genetic engineering may also contribute to better nutrient
    balancing by helping plants provide some of their own nutrients for
    enhanced growth.
  • Development
    of crops for drought prone areas, specific crops for saline soil
    conditions and in many other situations.
  • Making
    unlimited choice so that farmers can select the crops suited to their soil
    condition, weather and regional choice for particular taste for certain
  • Pharmacrops,
    a type of transgenic plant, which can manufacture industrial chemicals and
  • Bananas
    that can produce human vaccines against infectious diseases such as
    hepatitis B; fish that mature more quickly; fruit and nut trees that yield
    years earlier, and plants that produce new plastics with unique



Agricultural management includes all the activities,
functions and services used in moving the agricultural produce from the
producer to the final consumer or to the place where it is needed and also
putting in form and amount desired (drying, canning etc) and having it ready at
the time it is wanted.


  • Most
    of our crops are seasonal and are harvested once a year.
  • To
    prevent minimum loss of agricultural produce during post harvest stages
    like transport, processing, storage, marketing and distribution
  • Prevent
    short supply of certain vegetables during off-season and make it available
    throughout the year.
  • Preservation
    and supply of perishable products quickly and to travel long distances
    (international markets) while keeping their freshness and quality and to
    meet the needs of greater number of people for their varied needs and
  • To
    provide proper price of his produce to the farmersbecause small,
    low income, elderly and disabled farmers find it difficult to sell their
    produce to the big markets. They sell their produce at the local market in
    a very low price or the produce may get spoiled.

Three important marketing
functions in agricultural management are

1. Concentration: - of
agricultural products in larger markets for bringing together smaller amounts
of produce for greater conveyance in buying by the wholesale dealers,
transporting and processing and for getting better economy. Grading is
the sorting of agricultural produce into different groups on the basis of size,
variety, taste, quality, colour etc. This is needed to maintain uniformity
between markets, storing products of similar grade and understanding market

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PostSubject: Re: EE Notes   Thu Dec 27, 2007 8:40 am

2. Storage, processing and preservation Processing is the conversion of
farm produce into more consumable form, such as conversion of wheat into flour,
preparation of butter, cheese, ghee and milk powder etc from milk, hulling of
paddy into rice etc in order to protect the food from spoiling agents, retain
its quality, taste, the nutritional value etc conserve surplus produce, reduce
the work at home and for easy use.

a) REFRIGERATION: - Keeping the food in low
temperature so that the micro-organisms cannot grow, but are not killed and is
in an inactive stage. By the return of normal temperature the enzyme activity
is regained.

b) CANNING: -Foods are placed in jars or cans free of
cracks or bulging lids and is heated to a temperature that destroys
micro-organisms and deactivates enzymes. This heating and later cooling forms a
vacuum seal which prevents other organisms from contaminating the food within
the jar or can.

High acid foods such as fruits and tomatoes can be processed
or canned in boiled water and stored well for 12 to 18 months. Low acid foods
like vegetables and meat must be processed in a pressure canner at 240oF and
stored well for 2 to 5 years.

c) DRYING: -for preserving most of the perishable
food items where moisture plays an important role in the change of state and
quality of food item. Drying removes moisture from the foods, so that
microorganisms cannot grow and enzyme action is stopped.

useful in the preservation of perishable foods where water from the body of
microorganisms is passed into the salt or sugar solution and thus the
microorganisms are killed.

e) ADDING PRESERVATES like sulphur dioxide, sodium
nitrate, Butylated hydroxytoluene.

before storage of the grain, the storage bags and storage
rooms should be treated with suitable insecticides, biocides etc so that the attack
of grains by pests can be reduced.

3.TRANSPORTATION: - is also an important
aspect of management of food produce.

a. Quick transportation to prevent spoilage, to assure
availability in far off places in the country and to provide proper price of
his produce to the farmers. Special trains are being run to assure quick
transportation of fruits and vegetables.

b. Refrigerated trucks and railcars, air tight storage
facilities and hermetically sealed cans that are impervious to external
destructive agents such as oxygen, light, insects and rodents in vehicles etc
are available.

c.Providing opportunities for establishing super
markets and farmers markets at major transportation stops in a number of

d.Funds like rural transportation access incentive
programmes and clean fuel grants will help in improving management of
agriculture produce.

What are the problems related with the management of agricultural produce?

  • Product
    loss during storing, transportation etc.
  • Grains
    and cereals attacked by rats, birds etc and subjected to heavy rains etc
    during transportation through railways, trucks etc.
  • Attack
    of the stored food grains by pests like mites, beetles,
  • Spoilage
    of food by bacteria, fungi etc.
  • Decay
    of food due to low shelf life.
  • Poor
    storage facility and leaky bags and containers, which allows moisture and
    air to get in and cause damage such as sprouting, discoloration and
  • Careless
    handling of produce and gunny bags by laborers, or porters.

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