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 EE Notes

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PostSubject: EE Notes   Sun Dec 16, 2007 8:29 am

here goes sum of wat i've lol!
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PostSubject: Re: EE Notes   Sun Dec 16, 2007 8:30 am

STD 12

CHAPTER 1
CONCEPT AND VALUE OF BIODIVERSITY

1. Define biodiversity?
Ans. Biodiversity is the variety of the world’s organisms including their genetic diversity and the variability in the habitats or ecosystems in which they occur.
2.Who coined the term biodiversity?
Ans. The term biodiversity was coined by O.Ewilson in 1985 as a contraction of biological diversity.
3. What is UNCEO?
Ans. It is the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held at Rio Janeiro in 1992.
4. What is a gene pool?
Ans. Gene pool is the collection of genes or the complete set of genes that is found in the genetic constitution of the individuals in a population. A large gene pool indicates extensive genetic diversity, which is essential for speciation; where as a small gene pool shows increased chance of extinction.( A gene is a factor that is responsible for the expression of a character in an organism).
5.What are the overall concerns and issues of biodiversity?
Ans. 1) Biodiversity is facing extinction.
2) Conservation of biodiversity.
3) Integrating conservation with the other needs of the society.
6. What is the importance of obtaining knowledge of biodiversity?
Ans. Knowledge of biodiversity is needed to
• Value it
• Conserve it
• Know how human activities are affecting by biodiversity
• To know how living systems are influenced by changes in diversity.
7. What is the significance of biodiversity?
Ans. 1) Biodiversity renders services that are essential for the survival of man and other creatures on earth. It is necessary for the continued well-being of the inhabitants.
2) It is necessary for maintaining the functions of ecosystem and also in the evolutionary process.
3) All the human needs such as food, medicine, timber, rubber; wax, resin, honey etc are satisfied by biodiversity.
4) It is an important source of material for breeding improved varieties.
5) Biodiversity adds to the richness and beauty on earth.
Thus rich biodiversity is an indication of the health of the particular habitat, which is free of pollution.
8. What are the values of biodiversity?
Ans. Values of biodiversity can be broadly categorized as follows
Direct value & Indirect Value
Direct values or use values, which are assigned to the products harvested by people directly and this in turn, affect our natural resources biodiversity.
Direct use value is of two types: -
1) Consumptive use value- which involves direct utilization of timber, fuel wood, food etc.
2) Productive use value or Economical value- that includes money that we earn by selling products. We derive it from nature and in the national & international market. The economic welfare of the people and their nations depends mainly on the biotic resources. Medicines, raw materials for various industries etc all are provided by biodiversity. Genetic diversity enables scientists and farmers to develop genetically modified organism through biotechnology & genetic engineering.
Indirect values are benefits that are provided by biodiversity without affecting natural resources. Indirect values include:-
1) Non-consumptive use value or ecological value – such as pollution control, purification of air, medical research, biogeochemical cycles, protection of natural resources, photosynthesis reducing the global warming, preventing soil erosion etc.
2) Ethical or moral value – which states that every species has its moral right to exist on earth.
3) Legal value – Every organism is striving for existence in the world, so it is our duty to allow others to live in this biosphere; and we do not have right over the life of other organisms and over their life support systems.
4) Existence value - of biodiversity has been supported by the U.N General Assembly’s World Charter For Nature, 1982. According to this value we should have the simple idea of knowing a species that is existing on earth and thus protect and preserve it because the extinction of some species will threaten the very existence of man.
5) Option value – It deals with the potential of a species to provide economic benefit to human beings in near future, and it includes unknown value of known species and unknown value of unknown species.
6) Aesthetic value – The appreciation of the presence of biodiversity for its inherit value and beauty as well as the contribution it makes to our knowledge is essential. The aesthetic value that we add to the environment is an important reason for saving it.
9. What are the different concepts of biodiversity?
Ans. According to Callicot et al biodiversity can be understood as the current standardized concepts in conservation. Every Species has some intrinsic value (the value which is not dependent of human values) and there is an ethical obligation to protect biodiversity.
Norton says that every species has a utilitarian value and that the value of the species is hard to estimate. So, he says that instead of focusing on the protection of a single endangered species, we must look at the total diversity and that species must only be a unit of this total diversity. He also stressed the recognition of the functional and compositional perspectives on biodiversity giving regard to ecological health he means to provide provision for clean air and water. Integrity deals with the persistence of bio-geographic evolutionary and ecosystem processes, such as those relating to energy flows i.e. the biotic elements and process that generate and maintain those elements.
According to O.E. Wilson each species in the biodiversity should be considered as an irreplaceable resource of humanity so that it is our responsibility to preserve each unit based on their value now and in the future. Thus the core of biodiversity might be based more on what we do not know than what we could know.

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PostSubject: Re: EE Notes   Sun Dec 16, 2007 8:31 am

Chapter 2
Types of Biodiversity
Species, Ecosystem and Genetic
1. What are the three levels of variability that can be seen in biodiversity?
Or which are the different types of biodiversity?
Ans) 1) The variety of species within a community.
2) The genetic variability within a species.
3) The organizations of species in an area into distinctive plant and animal
communities.
2. What is species richness?
Ans) The number of species per unit area is referred to as species richness.
3. What is species evenness or species equitability?
Ans) Number of individuals of different species whether more or less number represent species evenness or equitability. Species evenness is of three types: -
1) Species Richness or Dominance – means one kind of species is found in large numbers compared to other species found in much lesser numbers. This related unevenness i.e. unevenness among related species shows less diversity. e.g. (6 pigeon, 3 parrots, 1 sparrow- 3 are related species)
2) Greater Evenness or equitability in species- Equal number of individuals of each species are found in a given area. This shows moderate or equal diversity because of greater evenness. E.g. (3 cows, 3 buffaloes, 3 deer)
3) Greater diversity of species- larger area where varied number of species in varied number are present. e.g. (6 cow, 3 pigeon, 8 crane, 4 rabbits etc.)
4. What is species diversity?
Ans) The variety of different types of living things (species) present in a region such as bacteria, fungi insects, mammals, plants etc. Each species plays a different role within the ecosystem.
5. What is a species?
Ans) A species can be defined as a group of closely related, structurally and functionally similar organisms capable of interbreeding among themselves but not with the organisms of other group. According to the biological species concept species is defined as sexually interbreeding group of individuals separated from other species by reproductive isolation. Exceptions – mule, hinny, liger, tigon. Thus reproductive isolation is the main factor that maintains distinctiveness among species.
6. Dominance – is the characteristic in which a few species or population furnish the major bulk of the population than rest of the species which will be greater in number and this bulk population are important in determining the nature of community and they strongly influence the environment and food supply of other species. E.g. In a forest, large trees are usually dominant species because their leaf cover over other populations determine how much light is available to other plants.
7. Succession – It is the process where a series of communities replace one another, starting from an extreme habitat and ending in a mature climax ecosystem i.e. it is the successive replacement of one community by another one. New species are progressively invading (added on to) the community as the succession progresses and the species diversity lends to be greater in each seral state and the highest diversity of species is occurring in the sub climax stage rather than in the final climax stage. At the same time as conditions change some individuals find it difficult to live in that area and hence they are removed from the system. Abiotic factors such as water, soil, solar energy, minerals (i.e. mainly climate, soil) determine which plant population can survive in the area. Again it is the plants that serve as food for animals and other consumers and hence this plant population decide the animal population in that community thus interaction below biotic and abiotic factors produce changes in the ecosystem.
8. Ecological Succession – is the orderly process of community changes which is directional and predicable and it results in the modification of the physical environment by the community and culminates in the establishment of a stable ecosystem. Thus succession is the successive replacement of one community by another.
Sere/ Seral stage
Developmental stages in a community during succession are called seral stage.
Climax stage
Final stage in community succession.
Two different types of succession are:- 1) Primary succession
2) Secondary succession
Primary succession
When succession starts from areas that has not been previously inhabited by organisms from steric or bare areas and proceeds until it forms a climax community is called primary succession. E.g. Succession on bare rock. Succession in a pond. Succession in a newly exposed sea floor. Succession on lava sediments etc/ sand dunes.
E.g. In the succession from bare rock, there must first be the long process of rebuilding the soil. Organisms such as lichens can survive on bare rock. Gradually the effects of the lichens together with wind, rain, heat and temperature changes cause alternate expansion and contraction of rocks leading to its breaking. Lichens also trap soil and moisture that are transported by wind and water. As soil formation takes place, other plants such as mosses, grasses and flowering herbs are able to survive and reproduce. After hundreds of years such succession from bare rocks may result in a climax forest in the area.
Secondary succession
When succession starts in a previously colonized area that has been cleared off, and culminates in a mature climax community it is called secondary succession. In such succession the remnant species along with new ones regenerate a new community.
Secondary succession requires a shorter period of time. A destroyed grassland recovers in 50 – 100 years while a destroyed forest in more than 200 years.
This can also be called as resilience or recovery capacity of the ecosystem i.e. ability to recover from the losses occurred to the ecosystem.
9. Species diversity – It refers to the variety and variability of different types of species present in a region.
10. Genetic diversity – It refers to the variety of genes within a species. It is expressed as sub species breeds, racies etc. This variety is due to interbreeding and changes in chromosome structure due to mutation, natural selection etc.
Significance.
1) It is mainly responsible for variation.
2) It enables the organism to adjust to different situations/ particular environment.
3) It forms the gene pool from which our crops and domestic animals have been developed.
4) It is necessary for speciation.
5) It is necessary for the maintenance of biodiversity at species and community level.
6) Genetic diversity increases survival rate as well as respond to natural selection.
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PostSubject: Re: EE Notes   Sun Dec 16, 2007 8:32 am

11 DIFFERENT WAYS OF PRODUCING GENETIC VARIATION
1.SELECTION; The differential reproduction that contribute differential survival to the gene pool of the next generation.
2.HYBRIDISATION; The crossing of two indls having desired genes and bringing together the useful characteristics of these into one progeny, the hybrid.
3.POLYPLOID BREEDING: It occurs in organisms when the no. of complete chromosome set is higher than two. Polyploid is the occurrence of more than two genomes. Polyploidy in sexually reproducing organisms arise by the fertilization of an egg by more than one sperm. The first man made cereal, TRITICALE is the result of a allopolyploidy.
4.INDUCED MUTATIONS: Artificially produced mutations are called induced mutations. Mutations are now induced artificially in crop plants with a new to get varieties having desirable characters such as high yield or resistance to diseases. It is of two types. Genetic mutation and chromosomal mutation. They are induced by several mutagens such as X-rays ,U.V.rays, gamma rays and cosmic rays that disrupt the chemical structure of chromosomes. (Mutations are sudden heritable change that occurs in one or both alleles of a gene. These changes are passed to the successive generation. These changes sometimes may not be desirable to its possessor; but at times may be desirable and the desirable mutations increase the adaptability of organisms to certain habitat and niche. Human diseases such as color blindness, albinism and hemophilia are due to gene mutations.)
5. TISSUE CULTURE: is a technique that can be applied for identical mass production of selected plants by culturing a few cells or tissues whose characteristics are known. Due to this technique a rapid rate of multiplication under controlled envtal conditions has been achieved. As the cells for the culture is taken from matured cells , these plants mature early. The health status of the plant is assured. The tissue culture technology has been used to preserve or transport genetic material to be used for plant breeding and improvement programme.
6.GENETIC ENGINEERING: It is the recombinant technology, which was developed during 1970s.By this technique the desired genes could be isolated from an organism and transferred into another organism. The organism that carry the foreign genes are called transgenic organism.
12.Homozygous- condition in which two alleles of a gene for a particular character are alike. E.g. TT, tt, RR, rr.
13.Heterozygous- condition in which both alleles of agene are different in nature. (Tt,Rr)
14.Natural selection – This phenomenon was commonly used by Charles Darwin. It can be defined as the process of differential reproduction that leads to differential contribution of genotypes to the gene pool of the next generation.
Principles of natural selection
1) Over production – large number of individuals will be produced than could survive. E.g. insects lay hundred of eggs.
2) Struggle for existence – over production causes competition below the off springs for food shelter space etc.
3) Variations – Individuals with advantageous variations (superior genotypes) are selected by nature and they are able to survive.
4) Survival of the fittest – Fittest organisms (superior genotypes) have better chances of survival where as organisms unfavorable variations are perished from this nature.
5) Origin of new species: New species from pre-existing species.
The long colorful feathers of the male bird of paradise may seem a drawback as it make him obvious to predators and less able to escape from them. But even though death by predation is more, it is not becoming extinct, because they are attracted by the females for breeding and hence more off springs are produced.
Industrial melanism in peppered moths in England.
15. Speciation- origin of new species from preexisting species. If a physical barrier such as mountain or water body separate individuals in a species it becomes impossible for them to maintain interbreeding. Absence of reproductive contact for a long time will lead to a loss of capacity for interbreeding. In due course of time these individuals undergo physical and physiological changes depending upon the environment in which they live and thus they become morphologically different individuals.
16. Ecosystem diversity- It is the diversity of ecological complexes or biotic communities that do not exist as discrete units, which are part of a much wider system.
The ecosystem diversity has 3 different perspectives: -
1) Alpha diversity – diversity within the community. i.e. diversity of organisms sharing the same community.
2) Beta diversity – is the change in species composition from community to community. i.e. diversities between communities.
3) Gamma diversity - is the overall diversity of a region/ i.e. diversity of a geographical area/ landscape.
17. Habitat- It is the special place within the Community where every population in a community own and live. Many plants and animals share the same general habitat and live together. Habitat of different organisms are different. Some are adapted to live on land and some in water. Again on land some live in polar regions some in deserts, some in moderate climates etc. Some have cosmopolitan distribution. E.g. Cyprinid fish, frogs, colubridsnakes, passerine birds, rodents and man.
18. Niche- Each species of a community live in a very specific part of a habitat and perform certain function. The habitat together with the function form the niche of the species.
Thus niche of an organism is the total position and function f an individual in its environment. That is why number of two species of a given community can have exactly the same niche and live permanently together.
E.g. crickets and grasshoppers are closely related insects which live in the same habitat; however each occupies a different ecological niche. Grasshopper is active during daylight where as cricket is active at night.
Thus ecological niche is a particular combination of physical factors such as temperature humidity presence etc and the biotic relations required by a species for its life activity and continued existence in a community.
According to Joseph Griumal ecological niche is the ultimate spatial unit by just one species or subspecies, to which that species is held by structural and instinctive limitation.
The variety of species living together in a different niche gives that ecosystem species diversity.
19. Biome- is a large geographical region whose climate produces a characteristic association of climax plant and animal communities.
A biome gets its mane from its climax or dominant plant form E.g. grassland- biome in which grassland predominate.
But in oceans the most important organism that define biomes are usually the predominant animals e.g. benthos – area occupied by bottom dwellers.
Thus biome is divided into two: -
1) Plant association- characterized by the uniformity in the climax plant species that are dominant in the area. Eg In grasslands grasses are the dominant plants.

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PostSubject: Re: EE Notes   Sun Dec 16, 2007 8:32 am

2) Biociations- are identified by the uniformity in the dominant animal species of the climax community. Biome is the largest terrestrial biotic community and the principal geographical unit in an ecological system.
The different terrestrial biomes identified are: -

1.Artic Tundras
Climate- Artic climate, which is very cold. Winters are very long with little or no daylight and summers are very short.
Plants- lichens, artic grasses, sedges, dwarf willow and canbera (plants are ground hugging forms).
Animals- Caribou (wild reindeer), artic hare, lemmings, snow owl, polar bear, birds like ptarmigan, snow shoe hare, migrating water fowls.

2. Northern Coniferous Forest/ Targa
Climate- Temperature low in winter (6degree Celsius). Winters long and snowy. Summers brief.
Vegetation- Cone bearings and needle leaved evergreen trees like pine, juniper, deodar, birch, cypress, fir etc. Forest stratified into four layers 1. Evergreen tree stratum 2. Short shrub3. Low herbaceous plants 4. Moss and lichen layer
Fauna- Siskin, crossbills, squirrels, reindeer, caribou, lizard snakes, insectivorous birds.

3. Temperate deciduous forest
Trees shed their leaves during autumn so trees are leafless during winter.
Climate- Annual precipitation abundant and throughout the year. Temperature moderate.
Plants- Broad-leaved deciduous trees like oak, elm, maple, birch, beech and willow.
Animals- Salamander, frog, toad, turtles, snakes, lizards, rabbits, grey foren, black bears and songbirds.

4. Grasslands
Steppes of Europe and Asia, Prairies of North America and Canada, Pampas of South America
Veldts of Africa, Tussocks of New Zealand, (Steppes of Russia and Siberia have the largest continuous grassland)
Climate- Rainfall-10- 30 inches/ year, periodic fire devastation occur.
Plants- Short and tall grasses having extensive root system.
Animals- Bison, elk, antelope, zebra, deer etc burrowing animals like- rodents, rabbit, prairie dogs, ground squirrel etc.

5. Tropical rain Forest
Highest biodiversity area.
Climate- Temperature is high and uniform. Rainfall Abundant 200- 1000 cm/year. Climate is warm humid and support broad leaved evergreen plant.
Plants- Broad leaved evergreen tall leaves like rosewood, mahogany, rubber trees, figs, nutmeg, bamboo, shrubs, climbers etc.
Animals- Monkeys, Lemurs, Sloths, Snakes, ant eaters, birds, bats, Large carnivores like leopard, birds etc.

6. Tropical Savannah
Climate- Warm climate plains having coarse grass with scattered trees. Have alternate wet and dry seasons.
Plants- Drought tolerant plants, grasses and trees like Accacia, Eucalyptus, Phoenier etc.
Animals- Hoofed herbivores like zebra rhinoceros, giraffe, antelopes, elephant etc and carnivores like fox, wolf, tiger, lion etc.

7. Deserts
Climate- Rainfall is very less b/w 5- 15 cm/ year. Days are extremely hot and nights extremely cold.
(Gopi is a cold desert) E.g. Great western desert, Sahara, Kalhari, Thar, Atacama.’
Plants- Succulent xerophytes like cactus, euphorbia, and prickly pear.
Animals- Kangaroo rats, camels, desert cats, lizards, wasps, scorpion, snakes etc.

8. Mediterranean scrub forest/ chapparel.
Climate- limited winter rain followed by drought in the rest of the year. The temperature is moderate under the influence of cool, moist air of the oceans.
Broad- leaved evergreen vegetation. The vegetation is generally made up of fire resistant plants. Bush fires are very common. Animals adapted to drought are found here.-
Aquatic ecosystems can be divided into two: - Coastal ecosystems and marine ecosystems.
Coastal ecosystem consists of intertidal zone and neritic zone. Intertidal zone is the shoreline between land and the opensea, which is alternatively, exposed during tide Algae, barnacles, crab, starfish etc can be seen. Neritic zone is the region above the continental shelf. It is a highly productive area and consist of algae, clams, snails, worms and echinoderms.
Marine ecosystem consists of pelagic zone and benthic zone. Pelagic zone is the open sea zone, which constitute the ocean surface. It is highly productive area and consists of planktonic diatoms and dianoflagellates and nektons like fish, shrimps etc. Benthic zone is the darkest area, which includes the entire sea bottom. No light penetration and hence the organisms are heterotrophic.
Estuarine ecosystem: - Estuaries are water bodies where fresh water from the land mixes with the saline water of the sea. Salinity is between .5 % and 3.5 %. Estuaries are highly productive due to light penetration and high nutrient concentration. They are rich in planktons, crabs, oysters and fish.

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PostSubject: Re: EE Notes   Sun Dec 16, 2007 8:33 am

Lesson – 3
Balance in Nature

1.What are factors for the imbalance in nature?
a) Natural reasons
b) Human induced reasons.
Natural reasons are of 2 types
1) External forces/ disturbances such as |
• Storms
• Floods
• Erosion of mountains over years during rain.
• Natural ageing of lakes when sediments build up over years.
• Forest fires.
• Pests
• Landslides
2) Internal forces such as
a) Earthquakes
b) Volcanic Eruptions
c) Formation of mountains
d) Plate movements such as convergence and divergence.
Human Induced Reasons
Man being the dominant organism with greatest powers has made changes in the environment to fit his needs and desires in different ways.
1) Created artificial ecosystems different from that have existed before to suit his need and not necessarily for the survival value.
2) He greatly modified or replaced the natural process that control stability and balance with in the ecosystem.
3) He destroyed the forest for his various need.
4) His various activities accelerated the desertification process.
5) Mining activities
6) Quarrying
7) Construction of dams
Cool Conversion of marshy tracts for the construction of flats and other buildings (e.g. in Gujarat and Kutch regions marshy tracts of lands has been changed into lands for the purpose of constructing flat and other buildings.
9) He manufactured products by exploiting the natural resources and these products could not be absorbed by the environment.
2.Natural disturbances are necessary part of nature. Do you agree with this.
A) Natural disturbances are necessary part of nature and cannot be considered as disturbances. Without these disturbance resilience is impossible. Disturbances are part of nature’s defence mechanism to keep a check on the continuous growth of organisms so that balance is maintained.
But man has greatly modified or replaced the natural process that control stability and balance within the ecosystem by his various activities. He pushed the ecosystem to a point / threshold beyond which limiting factors become so severely operative that recovery become impossible.
3.Inspite of all the disturbances the ecosystems are always facing a challenge to achieve a balance. Comment on this. Or What is the difference between different ecosystems with regard to resilience? Or what is the difference between resilience in disturbed and undisturbed systems.
A)The ecosystem has the power to recover from a disturbance naturally(resilience). Some ecosystems are highly resilient, while others are exceedingly, fragile E.g. Ecosystems of cold and arid regions may be fragile and will be having very low/ limited resilience, while those in the tropical rainforest are more resilient as they belong to regions having more favorable conditions.
Again systems not in equilibrium behave very differently than those in equilibrium. When the source of a disturbance is removed from a system that is near the equilibrium, that system is expected to return to its previous stage after few years eg. When in an undisturbed forest some regions are destroyed by some natural calamities like landslides or uprooting etc. new seedlings grow in that space and restore the equilibrium. Thus after years it may be difficult to tell that there was once a gap.
But when the source of change is removed from systems that are not in equilibrium, they do not return to equilibrium. Instead they adopt a new state, for example some lands around the Amazon forest where there is torrential rain have been cleared for the extension of agriculture. Continuous agriculture made the land infertile. If such lands are abandoned it grows into grassland and savanna and does not return to the original forest. Sterile land and the torrential rainfall do not permit the growth of plants there .
5. What is the need for maintaining equilibrium?
A) (1) For the smooth functioning of the ecosystem i.e. for the cyclic transfer of materials between the biotic and the abiotic factors; and for energy flow.
(2) For maintaining species diversity, genetic diversity and ecosystem diversity.
(3) For speciation and evolution
(4) For the maintenance of air, water, soil and land quality.
(5) Conservation of resources.
(6) Maintaining the climate of an area.
(7) Reducing natural calamities.
6. Explain the balance in islands?
A) Island communities are highly susceptible to disturbance. As the islands are located at very long distances from the main land only species having high powers of dispersal can reach there. Entirely new species not found in the mainland have evolved in these islands from a common ancestor by different adaptation in different habitats of the island and this is called adaptive radiation i.e. considerable internal evolution has taken place in these islands by means of adaptive radiation. The island habitats are more susceptible to disturbance. Grazing and the displacement of the native species with vigorous species from the mainland, and the attempts to develop island environment can cause disturbance as these lead to the decimation (killing) of the native flora and fauna causing great scientific and recreational loss, loss of fertility, accelerated soil erosion and total description of islands ecosystem.
7. How did primitive man considered, treated and changed earth?
Primitive men were hunter-gather. He knew the wild plants, how they grew and began to corporate farming and domesticating animals as part of an overall food collection strategy.
Thus civilization took its birth when man discovered fire and when there was a transition between simple foraging to sedentary agricultural societies where the people stayed in one place and grew crops. i.e. the foragers instead of collecting wild cereals they actually cultivated plants and

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PostSubject: Re: EE Notes   Sun Dec 16, 2007 8:33 am

domesticated animals. As a result of the gradual development of man’s civilization he started to store food grains to manage assured food supply.
Early man cultivated plants and domesticated animals. Wild species of plants were cultivated, domesticated and were developed through natural selection and this enabled their survival in the nut. He did not interfere with the complex pattern of biotic communities responsive to a variety of environment. He adjusted with the other organisms and also o the habitat in which it lived and thus he lived in harmony with the environment. He occupied a niche and assumed a role comparable to other animal and the ecosystem maintained itself in a healthy condition. He occupied a position similar to those occupied by others and he did not interfere in other species niche.
8.What do you understand by the balance in nature?
A) In nature there exist a balance between the biotic and abiotic factors. Nature always keeps a check in the number of individuals of each species and thus the number of producer, herbivores and carnivores in an ecosystem are maintained in a balanced way by the process of eating and being eaten and also by certain natural forces or disturbances which are considered necessary part of maintaining balance.
As long as the ecosystem maintains its balance, plants and animals can carry out their life cycles undisturbed and each member of the system will be able to obtain its needed nutrients. Thus this delicately fabricated balance in the ecosystem maintained by the organisms (other than modern man) is useful for the smooth functioning of the ecosystem.
9. How can we maintain the lost balance of nature?
1) Leave the ecosystem as it is.
2) Establishment of animal and bird sanctuaries, national parks etc.
3) Protection of endangered species
4) Control of population
5) Maintain the quality of air, land and water by controlling pollution
6) Remedial measures, which will involve integrated effort of science, technology, law, sociology, politics and economics.
7) Afforestation and promotion of sustainable forestry
Cool Community participation in restoration and conservation programmes.
10.What are factors causing imbalance in aquatic ecosystem?
A)Factors that create imbalance in aquatic ecosystem are
1 Natural
• Cyclones
• Storms
• Earthquakes
• Volcanoes
• Plate movements etc.
• Accidental death due to straying into the shallow waters
2. Man- made
a. Trade and over exploitation [heavy fishing].
b. Pollution resulting from increased industrial development along the coastal regions.
c. Shipping activities. Merchant shipping, passenger vessels and other sea-going craft,
under sea noise pollution affect the sensitive species, habitats and conservation areas.
d. Jetties and break waters built to protect the harbour entrances block the sediments in sea water resulting in deposition of the uplift and erosion in down drift of the structure.
e. Artificial barriers like groins built by man very close to the shore to control the erosion in some areas, to maintain beaches and protect the houses.
f. Sediments dredged from the harbour and far offshore areas are brought to the coast to rebuild the coast. These sediments contain a lot of pollutants that are harmful to the coastal ecosystem.
g. Thermal pollution from electric power plants and oil spill. Increase in the acidity of sea water due to the increase in the concentration of carbon di oxide and the dumping of urban and industrial waste, radio active substances from nuclear power plants are also the cause of pollution
h. Tourism: - Constant inflow of visitors, waste thrown by them and tourist infrastructure like resorts disturb the ecosystem.
i. Mining: -The major minerals mined are petroleum, natural gas, magnesium, bromine,
sodium chloride etc. and these can cause problems by the release of oils and chemicals.
1. Over fishing [whales, seals, dolphins, and several other fishes and sea animals] Whaling is the practice of hunting whales to obtain oil, whalebone, meat and several other by product.
Effects of trawling on the life of marine organisms
1. Trawling has collapsed world fisheries and many fish species have disappeared forever. As the trawling nets are lacking selectivity the non-targeted organisms like sea turtles sharks, dolphins, seabirds etc are caught and are thrown away.
2. It destroys the physical chemical and biological environment (habitats) of biological organisms.
3. Again the organisms on the deep seabed are being destroyed by trawlers that scrape the bottom as it causes widespread disturbance of sediments. It can damage the coral reefs and can affect the spawning of fishes
4. The fish fries and fingerlings that are caught are of no use to the catchers and are used for preparing fish feed and poultry feed. This can affect the fish number.
5. It takes very long time for another regeneration as whole bottom along with the food of organisms is destroyed.
6. Disturbance caused in the bottom sediments can clog the gills of fishes and this creates oxygen deficiency and there by the death of fishes.


chapter--4
BIODIVERSITY FOR THE SUSTENENCE OF MANKIND

I SURVIVAL: - Biodiversity meets the basic survival needs of a vast number of people. Man cannot live without biodiversity. Human beings derive many direct and indirect benefits from the living world. In addition to the potential resources biodiversity provides other useful products like food, medicines, timber etc. and also some ecological services free of cost that are responsible for maintaining ecosystem health.

II BIODIVERSITY AS A SOURCE OF FOOD TO MAN
Now there are over 3000 species of food plants known to us, out of which only 150 species are commercialized. Less than 20 species produce 85% of the food output.
1.Cereals: Grain producing plants which belongs to the grass family. Cereals are the most imp components of our diet. Cereals like wheat, corn, rice, rye, oats, barely, sorghum, millets etc make up 2\3 of the carbohydrate we consume and without cereals it is difficult to feed the world.

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PostSubject: Re: EE Notes   Sun Dec 16, 2007 8:34 am

2. Pulses.-Known as legumes are rich in proteins and so is considered as the most useful vegetable. Pulses include peas, beans, lentils and Soya beans. Pulses put back nutrients into the soil as they possess nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the root nodules, which fix atmospheric N and convert them as nitrates in the soil.
3. Oilseeds: such as soybeans, coconut, cottonseed, peanut, sunflower, mustard, grape seed, sesame, safflower, olive seed and oil palm are widely grown for their oil which is used in cooking

IMPORTANCE OF OLIVE OIL
(Produced from olive seeds can be used for cooking and is also having medicinal value. Olive oil can directly penetrate the body and relieves pain and aches restoring strength. It reduces high B.P, rectifies low B.P and protects the circulatory system, reduces the cholesterol [harmful] and raising beneficial cholesterol. Olive oil consumption diminishes the risk of contracting all major diseases including cancer, retards the ageing process by prolonging the life of somatic cells. It can be oxidized quickly.)
4. Fruits and vegetables: provides variety to our diet and is rich in vitamins and minerals that maintain our health.
5. Sugar cane, sugar beet, brown sugar: as a source of sugar.
6. Spices and other condiments: which adds taste and flavor to food and is also a cash crop
7. Tea, coffee and other beverages:
8: Cattle, pigs, sheep, goat etc which give us meat.
9. Milk, eggs, fish etc

III. Some animals like donkey, horse, oxen etc are used as draught animals.

1V.DRUGS AND MEDICINES: Bio diversity is a big source of substances with therapeutic properties. Ayurvedic system of medication is entirely dependent on the biodiversity of the flora. Currently nearly 50% of drugs are based on plant products and 25% of the drugs in the pharmacy are derived from a mere 120 species of drugs. Some of the medicines are obtained from mineral and animal sources also.
E.g. 1..Morphine [analgesic] from papaver
2.Quinine {anti malarial drug] from the bark of Cinchona
3. Taxol [anti cancer drug] bark of yew [Taxus brevifolia] tree.
4. Rosy periwinkle [leukemia-anti cancer drug]
5. Foxglove plant-Heart stimulant.
6. Blow fly larvae—Wound healer
One cannot imagine a situation if Pencilium had been eliminated from the nature before man-kind made use of it as antibiotic or if Cinchona became extinct before Quinine was discovered as a cure for Malaria. Thus, to provide resource of searching new medically active compounds, at least some part of the nature has to be left undisturbed. The Silent Valley Forests of Kerala are preserved since it was known to hoard diverse endemic varieties with immense medicinal value. It is therefore in our own interest to conserve our plant, animal and microbial wealth. There is a global realization about the urgent need to conserve the biological diversity.

V. AESTHETIC AND CULTURAL BENEFITS
Throughout human history people have related biodiversity to the very existence of human race through cultural and religious believes. In a majority of Indian villages and towns plants like Ocimum sanctum[tulsi] Ficus religiosa, etc and various other trees are planted which are considered sacred and worshipped by the people. Several birds and even snake have been considered sacred. Today we continue to recognize plants and animals as symbols of national pride and cultural heritage.
Eg of aesthetic aspects include eco- tourism, bird-watching, wild life ,pet keeping, gardening etc.




VI.MAINTENANCE OF ECOSYSTEM FUNCTIONS
Biodiversity is essential for the maintenance of ecosystem and their sustainable utilization. These services include
• Maintenance of gaseous composition of the atmosphere
• Climate control by forests and oceanic system
• Natural pest control
• Pollination of plants by insects and birds
• Pollution control: - Microorganisms present in the soil help in the removal of toxic substances from air land and water.
• Provides a habitat for a wide variety of animals including man.
• Formation and protection of soil
• Aeration of soil and making it fertile
• Conservation and purification of water
• Nutrient cycling etc.
These ecosystem services have been valued in the range of 16-54 trillion U.S dollars per year.

VII TIMBER PRODUCTION AND RAW MATERIALS FOR MANY INDUSTRIES: -Large diversity in plant resources is the source of raw materials for many industries that provide us with finished goods and also means of living for large number of people.

VIII POTENTIAL USES OF BIODIVERSITY
1. Advanced technologies in agriculture has undergone a drastic change in food production. In older technologies like fermentation [producing curd, vine bread etc, production of citric acid, composting agricultural waste applying low temp. fermentation]developing vaccines, inoculants plant breeding, production of antibiotics etc only the natural capabilities of the organisms and cells are exploited.
2. In modern technologies we are applying scientific and engineering principles to technologies like biotechnology, tissue culture etc which allow the modification of organisms in ways to achieve human objectives that were impossible while using traditional techniques.



IX.UNDER THIS BIODIVERSITY CAN BE CONSIDERED
a. as a source OF NEW CROPS: which are able to manufacture their own fertilizers with immense savings in cost to the farmer, resists diseases and drought etc. Winged bean is a new crop produced where the whole part of the plant is eaten.

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PostSubject: Re: EE Notes   Sun Dec 16, 2007 8:34 am

b. as a source material for breeding improved varieties: the genetic material contained in the wild and domesticated varieties of organisms are essential for breeding programs by which genes are incorporated into commercial lines for the improvement of yield eg:- genes for pest and disease resistant ones and responsiveness to different harsh climate and soil is needed for sustainable devpt and these genes will be present in the wild varieties. These genes are transferred into the body of another organisms with desirable characterizes. Improvement in the quality of animal feed in order to improve their nutrition.
(The wild forests contain a tremendous variety of biodiversity and economically useful plants .The wild varieties are the greatest source of genes that are disease or pest resistant, drought resistant and hence they are valuable because of the potential opportunities such genetic diversity offers to plant breeders. There are 100s of wild varieties of potatoes, sweet potatoes, peas, rice etc with un explored genetic abilities to adjust to new climates and to resist various diseases, but less in yield. In U.S one variety of sweet potato accounts for 69% of production, whilst 2 varieties of pea account for 96%of total yield. Most of the currently high-yielding rice have been made disease resistant by the transfer of resistant genes obtained from an Indian wild rice ORYZA NIVARA. Had this one Indian rice become extinct before the discovery of its resistant gene, the loss to humanity would have run into billions of rupees per year that would have gone on pesticides to kill the pests. Wild wheat has increased the yield of wheat to the tune of 50 million U.S dollars annually. A gene from an Etiopian wild barley transferred to cultivated barley for resistance against yellow dwarf virus has resulted in gaining 160 million U.S dollars annually.)
c. As a source of new bio-degradable pesticides used for controlling weeds, insects and pathogens. Viruses, bacteria ,protozoa, fungi and mites are used as pesticides. Eg Soil bacterium, The spores of this bacterium produce the insecticidal CRY protein which kill larvae of certain insects.
d. The quality of crops can be increased in poor soils by using mycorrhizal fungi that enhance mineral absorption by plants and also in the manufacture of bio fertilizers..
e. Provide better industrial raw materials such as biodegradable plastics obtained from plant starch
f. Oil seed crops can provide important industrial raw materials and reduce the dependence on petroleum by products for manufacturing various products like lubricants, polymers, inks, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.
g. Biodiversity also provides biogas and bio fertilizers which are eco friendly ones.


X. What is Eco- tourism?
A) Eco-Tourism means management of tourism and conservation of nature to maintain balance between the requirement of tourism and ecology on one hand and needs of local communities on the other. Eco- Tourism is a new concept at the global level. It involves biodiversity. Eco- tourism, a part of tourism, includes enjoying landscapes, flora and fauna- all at a time.
Characteristic Of Eco- Tourrism
• All nature- based forms of tourism in which the main motivation of tourist is to maintain the ecological balance as well as the traditional cultures prevailing in a region.
• It includes educational and research features.
• It is generally organized for small groups by specialized locally owned business groups.
• It minimizes negative impact upon the natural and socio- cultural environment.
• It supports the protection of natural areas by:
1) Generating economic benefit for host communities.
2) Providing alternative employment and income opportunities for local people.
3) Increasing awareness towards the conservation of natural and cultural aspects among local people and tourists.

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PostSubject: Re: EE Notes   Thu Dec 27, 2007 8:28 am

CHAPTER – 5


Resource
Limitations



Any naturally occurring material that is useful & valuable or
can be transformed in a way that it becomes more valuable & useful for
humanity can be called a resource. E g ornaments from gold, furniture from
wood, clothes from yarn etc.



The use of the resources can change because of technology, economics
& environment effects.



Resources connected to technology



Technology is needed to transform a resource into a valuable good
improving them e.g. cloth from yarn etc.




It can help a resource to extend its supply e.g. today we get 7
times more electric power from 1 ton of coal than 1900, again technology can
convert low rank mined coal to high rank that is efficient in fuel.




Technology helps in recycling of resources, e.g. now we can
recycle 40% Cu, Pb, Ag etc from waste.




It can be used to find out new sources of resources from greater
depths.




Develop alternative sources of energy such as solar energy, wind
& water energy & thus conserve national resources.



Its Limitations



Technology cannot bring back the extinct animal or plant resource.



Recycling of non-renewable resources is not possible by using
technology.




Technology cannot make a resource, not present in the earth.





Resource
use connected to economics




Some
thing is useful as a resource only if it is available at a reasonable cost.




Digging
& exploring new source of resource increase the value & expense of the
resource.




The
cost of finding out a scarce resource & making it available will be more
expensive.




Higher
cost of a resource stimulates more research for new supplies or makes
processing of lower grade deposits economically feasible.




Recycling
of resource is cheaper than mining the resource if not widely dispersed e.g. if
the products be recycled [steel & iron] r thrown away insteasd

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PostSubject: Re: EE Notes   Thu Dec 27, 2007 8:29 am


CHAPTER – 6

ECOLOGICAL ROLE OF
BIODIVERSITY








Ecosystem :-It is the structural and functional units of
biosphere. It is a self-sustained/ self-sufficient unit where the biotic and a
biotic component interact through the process of energy flow and nutrient
cycle.

STRUCTURE OF THE ECOSYSTEM




The ecosystem is formed of two major components. They are 1.
The biotic components. 2. The a biotic
components.


ABIOTIC COMPONENTS: - consists of the physical environment,
which do not possess life. It can be of three types.


  • The
    inorganic components: - CO2, water, nitrogen and other elements.
  • The
    organic components:- carbohydrates, fats, proteins etc which are formed from the inorganic
    components and they are the connecting link between the biotic and a
    biotic component.
  • Climate
    factors:- are of two types.



1.Atmospheric factors: like temp,
humidity, rainfall, sunlight, wind etc.


2.Soil factors or edaphic factors:
like soil ph, temp, fertility, presence of air, water etc.

BIOTIC COMPONENTS: - consists of




1.Producers: - all the green plants that can produce
their own food and also food for others.


2.Consumers or heterotrophs: - depend upon plants
either directly or indirectly. Consumers are of three types


1. Herbivores:
which feed only on plants or plant parts.


2. Carnivores:
which feed on the flesh of other animals.


3. Omnivores:
which feed on both plants and animals.


Decomposers or micro consumers.:- are microscopic
organisms like bacteria and fungi which feed on the dead organic matter


  • Convert organic matter into inorganic matter and
    return them to the soil, for plants to reabsorb.
  • They
    decompose the waste materials and thus help in reducing the waste and in
    keeping the environment clean.
  • They
    improves the soil fertility.
  • Minimises
    pollution as the toxic materials are detoxified by their action.


ROLE OF PRODUCERS IN THE ECOSYSTEM




Plants obtain their basic food from the raw materials
present in air and water and energy from sunlight and these become the food for
all other organisms in this biosphere.


1. They modify the climate in an area by
bringing local rain by the process of transpiration.


  • They
    purify the air by taking in CO2 and giving out O2, which is used by
    organisms to prepare food.
  • Plants
    remove and add various minerals through which soil is modified or altered.
  • Plants
    take in nutrients from the soil and put back nutrients into the soil.
  • Roots
    of plants hold the soil particles and prevent soil erosion.
  • Increases water retentions in soil in
    catchment areas so that water become available to springs and wells, which
    in turn prevents water logging or flooding.
  • Provides
    a variety of products.



8. They act as windbreakers to storms and gales
there by reducing their velocity and thus reducing tree fall and soil erosion


Ecological
hierarchy: -
are the ecological levels of organization
connected with the ecological groupings of organisms. There are no demarcations
in the functional sense amongst various levels of ecological hierarchy, as the
same individual is a component of the population, the biological community as
well as the ecosystem. The hierarchy is as follows organisms – populations-
ecotype- biotic community.


Organisms: - can be defined as a distinct
package carrying out life processes within its body as an entity separate from
those being performed in the bodies of others. It is the basic unit of
ecological hierarchy as it continuously exchanges materials and information
with its environment. New individuals develop from pre-existing ones and by
this process hereditary characteristics are transferred. No organisms can
survive individually so they from population.


Population: - Group similar individuals
that inhabit a particular geographical area or space.


Ecotypes: - Population in an area or locality
that is genetically adopted to a particular environment.


Biotic community:- group of populations
comprising different species of plants, animals, bacteria, fungi etc which live
in a particular area through competition, predation, mutation etc. Biotic community forms a distinct ecological
unit. Community units may be very small, like the community of invertebrate,
sand fungi in a decaying log.

COMMUNITIS ARE OF TWO TYPES




1.
Major: - are those, which together with their habitats
form more or less complete and self-sustaining except solar energy.


2. Minor:
-
called societies are secondary aggregations within a major community and
are not therefore completely independent units except the circulation of
energy.


Thus we
can understood that the sustenance of ecosystem depends upon the diversity of
species in an ecosystem and keeping in balance the circulation of elements
between the biotic and a biotic components of the ecosystem.


FUNCTIONS OF
ECOSYSTEM



The functioning of ecosystem is dependent upon the presence
of a suitable combination of species each of which performs a specialized task
within the total ecosystem.


1.Protection of water resources: - The natural
vegetarian cover in water catchments helps in 1.maintaining hydrological
cycles, 2. Regulating and stabilizing water run off and acts as buffer against
extreme events like flood and drought.3.It also helps to regulate under ground
water tables and prevent its drying up and provides stability.


Soil formation and protection: -1.Biodiversity
helps in the maintenance of soil structure and increases the moisture retention
capacity as well as nutrient level of soil.2. Trees help in soil formation,
their root system enables deep penetration of water and transport mineral
nutrients to surface. Litter formation by the organic matter enhances the
microbial activity.


Nutrient storage : -Microorganisms present in
the soil by decomposing dead and decayed wastes replenishes the soil’s
nutrients. The function of nitrate bacteria and that of a nitrifying bacteria
being different, diversity of the microorganisms is also essential.


Cycling of water and nutrients: These are done
mostly by the plants, animals and microbes. Not only this, non-living components
like air, water and solar energy are also attached with this.

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PostSubject: Re: EE Notes   Thu Dec 27, 2007 8:29 am

Food production: Plants are directly or indirectly related
with food production. They are the sole source of food. Hence they are called
primary producer. Through food chain and food web, this food is transferred
from one organism to other.


Production of energy or producers: Though
energy is the prime requirement of all the living organisms, sun is the sole
source of energy. Green plants or producers are the only medium which can
convert solar energy into chemical energy. This energy in turn is used by all
the living organisms in the biosphere.


Consumers:
All the other animals which directly or indirectly take plants as their
food resources are consumers. All the herbivores and carnivores are called
consumers.


Reduction in natural calamities: Natural calamities like drought, flood,
earthquake etc. are often the result of loss or destruction of biodiversity.
Healthy ecosystem has the capability of quick recovery from any natural
calamities. Rich biodiversity also lessen the occurrence of natural calamities.


Pollution, break down and absorption: - The
decomposers break down and assimilate the pollutants like sewage garbage, oil
spills, mineral waste, and industrial waste.


Climate stability: - Vegetation influences
climate both at the micro and macro levels. Forest
maintains rainfall by recycling water vapour steadily into atmosphere stable
level of CO2 is also maintained by trees.


Maintenance of resources: - The animal – plant
inter relation ship is essential to allow survival and to maintain balance
between living things and the needful resources. The web of life is so
intricate that removal or disturbance of one part of the ecosystem could affect
the smooth functioning of many of its other components.


Pollinators of plants and food dependence:
-Two major functions of ecosystem are nutrient cycle and energy flow.


FLOW OF ENERGY (Ten percent law)


Of the solar energy reaching the
earth’s surface nearly 1% of it is absorbed by plants for their food preparation.
Plants use up 90% of the energy for their growth, repair of tissues and other
activities and the remaining 10% is lost to the ecosystem. It may be eaten up
by herbivore or acted upon by decomposers. The herbivore uses 90% of this 10%
(they got from plants) and the remaining 10% is either lost to the ecosystem
(to be acted upon by decomposers) or may be eaten by a carnivore. The carnivore
uses 90% of the 10%(it got from the herbivore) for their life activities and
the rest (10%) will be lost to the ecosystem or may be eaten by others. Thus in
the energy flow the final level of organisms in the food chain gets only very
little of the energy trapped by the producers, but as they are having diverse
food habits the energy possessed by the top carnivore will be high. This is
the reason why food chains are always limited to four or five.









Food chain: -Itis the process
by which one organism is depending upon another organism by the process of eating and being eaten. Eg.
Grass->grass hopper->Frog->snake->hawk


Food web:-The food chains
are not independent, they are interrelated. This interconnected network of food
chain is called food web.


Bio-geo-chemical cycle is the
cycle transfer of elements between the biotic and a biotic system.
The various
bio geo chemical cycles (nutrient cycles) include carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle,
sulphur cycle, phosphorus cycle, oxygen cycle water cycle etc.






CHAPTER-7


INTERDEPENDENCE
BETWEEN THE SPECIES



INTERACTION BETWEEN PLANTS
AND ANIMALS:



Animals are depending upon
plants for their food shelter and also for various things.

ANIMALS HELP PLANTS IN DIFFERENT WAYS




1. Many animals are involved in
the pollination in plants.


2. Fruits and seeds of many
plants are dispersed by animals


3. Decomposers convert organic
substances into inorganic substances so that plants can absorb them easily.

SPECIES INTERACTION




All types of relationship
between organisms can be divided into two 1) Positive interaction-which
is beneficial to one or both partners. These include a) commensalism b) proto
co-operation c) mutualism 2) Negative interaction-which is
harmful to one or more of the participants. These include a) competition b)
predation c) parasitism d) amensalism and e) antibiosis


MUTUALISM-is an
association between two or more organisms in which all is mutually benefited
without any harm. It can be between plants and animals, different plants and
between two animals.


1) Pollination by animals


2) Dispersal of fruits and seeds


3) Association between birds and animals-the cow bird and
bison, the oxpecker and antelope, the crow and cattle. Here the birds get rid
of the ticks and external parasites in the body of host and inturn the bird
receives a constant supply of food. In the interaction between crocodile and
the bird, Pluvianus aegyptius, the bird removes leeches and food fragments from
crocodiles jaws.Inturn the bird receives food from the crocodile.


Mutualism may be obligatory
(where one cannot live without the other e.g. millions of ciliate
protozoa and bacteria in the stomach of horse digest cellulose for the horse
and provides 20% of its nitrogen requirement per day. These micro organisms are
essential for the normal growth and health of the horse) or facultative


(Where both are favored
by living together but one can live without the other e.g. squirrels facilitate
the extension of the hickory tree by burying the nuts. Here the hickory tree
can propagate without the squirrel and squirrels can survive without hickory
nuts.)


The relationship between man
and domesticated plants and animals is of obligatory type.



SYMBIOSIS –is the
association between two organisms which live together in close physiological
union for mutual benefit. (Similar to obligatory mutualism. E.g.


1) Lichens-association between photosynthetic
algae and fungus where the algae manufactures food and the fungus provides
moisture and minerals


2) Symbiotic nitrogen fixers-the
nitrogen-fixing bacteria present in the root nodules of leguminous plants and
other plants which fix atmospheric nitrogen and make it available to plants
whereas the bacteria obtain food from the plants.


3) Mycorrhizae-mycorrhizal fungi
common in the roots and other tissues of many orchids, which help in absorbing
water and nutrients (phosphorous) from the soil.


4) Zoochlorellae and
zooxanthelae-zoochlorellae (photosynthetic algae) and some brown or yellow
cells, probably flagellates (zooxanthallae) live in the outer tissues of
certain sponges, coelenterates, molluscs and worms produce nitrogenous
compounds beneficial to host and in exchange they obtain minerals released by
metabolism of host animals.


Mutualism and symbiosis are the
names given to very similar type of association.

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PostSubject: Re: EE Notes   Thu Dec 27, 2007 8:29 am

COMMENSALISM: -is
the association between members of different species without any physiological
contact in which only one is benefited and the other is neither harmed nor
benefited.


The chief benefits of this
association are shelter, anchorage, transportation and food supply.


A commensal that lives upon the
host’s body is called ectocommensal.eg


1. Lianas: Vascular
plants that are rooted to the ground and maintain erectness of their stems by
making use of other objects for support.


2. Epiphytes and epizoans:
Epiphytes are plants that grow perched on other plants only as support and not
for food and water. They are provided with special roots called velamin roots,
which can take up water from the moisture. Epizoans are plants that grow on the
body of animals. E.g. the green algae grow on the long, grooved hairs of the
sloth. Sucker fish attaches itself to the body of a shark.


A commensal that lives inside
the body of the host is referred to as endocommensal.


1. Some saprophytic fungi and
bacteria live within the tissues and cavities of higher plants and animals.
Some microbes are seen in the lower intestines of animals. (Here they are not
taking anything from the host’s body)


2. Termite nests provide
ecologic niches for more than a 100 species of other animals such as ants,
beetles and millipedes.


3. An oyster crab, Pinnothers
ostreum is found in the mantle cavity of the oyster. In addition to shelter it
also gets food from the host mollusks, oyster without causing any harm.


PROTOCOOPERATION:-It
is a short step ahead of commensalism and cooperation. In this relationship,
both organisms gain by the association and are mutually benefited (facultative
mutualism) E.g. the Red billed


Oxpecker form protocooperation
with Black Rhinoceros- the bird feed on the parasites sticking on the skin of
the rhinoceros relieving him of the parasites, and inturn obtaining their food.


PREDATION: -In
this relationship the prey is killed and eaten by an animal, the predator which
is free living and usually larger than its prey.Eg>


1. Herbivore animals that eat
plants or seeds of plants area also in a way predators because they remove
individuals from the population.


2. Carnivorous or insectivores
plants: -E.g. Uticularia, Drosera, Dionaea, etc which consume insects and other
small animals for their food.


3. Predation between herbivores
and carnivores.


PARASITISM: -It is
relationship between two individuals of different species in which the
parasites receives benefit (food, shelter and protection) at the expense of the
host. There are certain modifications and adaptations which might have evolved
in these organisms, such as organs of attachment, special body shape, cuticles,
loss of locomotory organs, loss of sense organs, digestive systems, etc.


1. Species of Cuscutta (total
stem parasites) grow on other plants on which they depend for nourishment. They
are provided with specialized roots called haustorium that penetrates the stem
of the host establishing relationship with its conducting elements.


2. Tape worm living in the gut
of host.


3. Ticks, mites etc that sucks
blood from the body of animals.

COMPETITION: -




The word competition means striving for the same thing. At
the ecological level it holds great relevance when the thing for which two
organisms are striving for is not easily available or only in small numbers.


Competitions may be of two types
1) intraspecific: occurring between members of the samepopulations.eg
competition between Paramecium caudatum and Paramecium Aurelia where one
species eliminate the another.2) interspecific: -
occurring between
populations of different species.Eg. Beetles feeding on stored legume seeds.


*Both parties competing will be
hampered in some manner or the other.


*At the population level energy flow will be reduced or
held in check by the competitive action.

AMMENSALISM AND ANTIBIOSIS: -




Ammensalism is the
site-specific relationship in which one population is inhibited while the other
is unaffected. E.g. Shading out of certain plants under tall trees. So only
shade loving trees can live as ground cover in the forests.


Antibiosis is the complete
or partial inhibition or death of one organism by another organism through the
production of some substance or environmental conditions as a result of
metabolic pathways.Eg.Production of chemicals (antibiotics) that are
antagonistic to microbes. Pond blooms of blue-green algae are known to
produce toxins (HYDROXYLAMINE) that causes death of fish and cattle.

ALLELLOCHEMISTRY OR ALLELOPATHY OR CHEMICAL AGGRESSION




It consists of coactions whereby chemicals secreted by one
organism affect the growth, health and behaviour of other organisms.


Allelopathy is produced in plants where toxins are
liberated that inhibit seedling growth in the vicinity, which affects
succession in plant species. E.g. The roots of the forest tree Grevillea in Australia
appear to produce water soluble substance that inhibits the establishment of
adjacent seedlings of the same species.


Pheromones, chemical messages between members of a
species are especially important in reproductive behaviour, social regulation
and recognition, alarm and defence, territory and trail marking, food location.























































































CHAPTER
8



INDIA AS A MEGADIVERSITY NATION


REASONS FOR CONSIDERING INDIA AS A MEGADIVERSITY NATION


1. The unique bio geographic position of the Indian sub
continent is responsible for the greater diversity in India’s
wildlife.


2. The wide variety of climate and soil prevailing in India
which allows it to support an enormous diversity of wildlife.


3.The great variety of ecological systems (from extreme
cold to extreme hot, scrub lands, grassy swamps, deciduous forest, tropical
rain forest etc)


4. The ability of the organisms to adapt to these varies
conditions


The immense faunal changes that took place during the late
Pliocene period have imparted to its flora and fauna and the habitat that
support this fauna and flora. India
is one among the 12 mega diversity nations, which contributes approximately 8%
species to the global diversity but accounts for only 2.4% of the land area of
the world.


1. Western Ghats: -It lies parallel to the western
coast of Indian peninsula for almost 1600km and spread over in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and kerala. Western gnats
of the western portion if the central belt receive very high rainfall and
support evergreen vegetation (found at low elevations 500 meters above mean sea
level), where as semi evergreen forests occur at 500-1500mts height. The two
main centers of biological diversity in Western Ghats
are 1) The Agasthyamalai hills and Silent valley and 2) The new Amambalam
Reserve. Coconut trees (kerala) sandal, sisoo and teak are the trees commonly
seen. Animals include wild elephants, guar, barking deers, hoolock gibbon etc.


It is one of the major “biodiversity hot
spots”.



2. Eastern Himalayas: -It extends to the
northeastern India and Bhutan.
Many deep and semi isolated valleys which are exceptionally rich in endemic
plant species are found in this region. There occur temperate forests numerous
primitive angiosperm families (eg.Magnoliaceae and Winteraceae) and primitive
genera of plants like Magnolia and Betula are found in this region. Animals
include red panda, crestless porcupines, three kinds of goat antelopes (serow,
takins, goral) etc are found here.


3. BIODIVERSITY OF THE SUNDARBANS: -The
Sundarbans constitute the single largest piece of mangrove forest in the world.



·
Located in the Gangetic Delta in the
southwestern Bangladesh and
the adjoining areas of the state of West Bengal in India, the Sundarbans is very rich
in floral and faunal diversity and has profound economic importance for the
people of the neighboring districts.


·
It has
additional importance in that it acts as a physical barrier to the frequent
storms arising in the Bay of Bengal protecting
communities in the hinterland.


·
Indian portion of the Sundarbans is a world
Heritage site, awarded by UNESCO in 1997



·
The most interesting animals of Sundarbans is
the Sundarban tiger which has adapted to this strange habitat of high
salinity and periodic inundation leading an amphibious life subsisting on a
variety of food apart from the normal prey of spotted deer, wild boar and even
fish and crab.


·
Sundarban is the single largest continuous area
in the world for the threatened Bengal tiger Panthera tigris tigris.(350
in Bangladesh
area and more or less same no in Indian region)


·
The area of the Sunderban has been formed into a
Tiger Reserve under Project Tiger.


·
123 species of higher plants including a number
of economically important species have been recorded from the Sundarbans. A
wide range of palms, grasses, ferns and epiphytes are also found here.13
species of orchid and seven species of fern occur in the forest.

The lower tidal zones
are characterized by primary colonizers, the Sonneratia and Avicenna trees,
which have extensive underground root systems which bind the mud together.
These roots show

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PostSubject: Re: EE Notes   Thu Dec 27, 2007 8:30 am

·
high tolerance to salinity as they are mostly
under water. These trees are also provided with pneumatophores (vertical
respiratory roots).


·
Mud skippers, semi-terrestrial-gobies, etc that
can leap with the help of the tail or even swim across the mud (exposed during
low tide) are seen and they can climb up the roots of mangrove trees presenting
a strange sight of tree climbing fish.


·
They are important breeding grounds for a wide
variety of organisms.


·
70% of Sunder bans are occupied by the
Excaecaria-Cereops forests. Above this level is the high land rarely in
undated, supporting forests of Phoenix,
either pure or in association with Excaecaria and thick under-growth of Neepa
palms.


·
They also act as shelter belts.


·
The Sundari trees found in the muddy areas of
Sunderbans, consists of floral populations like Genwa, Dhundal, Passur, Garjan
and Kankara


4. Andaman Nicobar Islands
(archipelago of 572 islands around 29 is inhabited): -



·
These areas have lush tropical rain forests,
being influenced by both the north-east and south-west monsoons.


·
Long periods of isolation have produced biotopes
as a result of speciation and now different species of plants and animals are
seen in different islands.


·
The Andaman pig, crab-eating coamaque, the palm
civet and various species of deer are some of the large mammals found in this
region. The spotted deer, the barking deer, the hog deer and sambar are some of
the deer populations that migrated during the 1920’s. A threatened species salt
water crocodile inhabits the tidal creeks and mangrove swamps.


·
Dominant plant species include Mahogany, teak,
Andaman Paduk, mangroves and a variety of tropical fruits.


5.The Peninsular region: -This raised plateau region
is characterized by tropical deciduous woodland which extend into the Ganges
basin The region of peninsular India and the drainage basin of the Ganges
consists of tropical moist deciduous to tropical dry deciduous and scrub forest
depending upon the rainfall. The northern and the eastern part which receive
more rain have sal as the predominant species and the southern part has teak as
the main species. Animals include elephants, sambhar deer, the guar cheetal,
elegant spotted deer, wild boar, four horned antelope, barking deer, lion,
tiger, leopard, wild dog etc are the animals).Betla, Bandipur, Rathambore,
Pench, Sariska etc are some of the National Parks in this region.


6.The desert region of Rajasthan or the Thar The
desert region of Rajasthan lying on the west of the Aravali ranges and east of
the Indus Valley also known as Thar, is connected with salt flats of Little
Rann of Kutch. Dominant species are cacti and succulents. Animals include
rodents, camels, Asiatic wild ass, and black buck, and desert cat, reptiles
such as snakes, lizards and tortoise.)


HOT SPOTS; -are areas of mega diversity (richest
reservoirs of plant and animal life on the earth) which are also the most
threatened ones. Ecologically they are determined by 4 factors, or the main criteria
for determining a hotspot are



i.
Species diversity,



ii.
Degree of endemism,



iii.
Degree of threat to habitat and



iv.
Degree of exploitation.


Hot spot concept was development by Norman Myers in 1988
25 terrestrial hotspots have been identified for the conservation of
biodiversity. Out of the 25 hotspots of the world 2 are found in India. These
are Western Ghats and Eastern Himalayas.






CHAPTER 9


ECONOMIC POTENTIAL
OF BIODIVERSITY



Economic welfare of mankind is centered on consumption and
utilization of natural resources at its disposal. Several 100s of species, have
served as bioresources of great potential, during the course of time as human
civilization grew.


Old technologies (fermentation etc) and new technologies
like the biotechnology enable great increases to be achieved in the efficiency
of traditional breeding programmes that allow the modification of organisms in
ways that were impossible using traditional techniques.


ECONOMIC POTENTIAL OF PLANT DIVERSITY.


a) Tea and coffee are the world’s
most valuable agricultural commodities as they maintain the economies of most
countries. Sugar cane, sugar beet, maple sugar, spices fruits and
vegetables


b). Provide timber, paper, gums,
resins, tannin, fibers like jute and cotton, distillation products like wood
alcohol, organic acids, charcoal etc.


c). Communities that live near the
forests obtain many products for their living and earn income for their living
from these products.


d). Wood based industries: - Forests
supply raw materials for pulp and paper industry, saw milling and plywood
production, pharmaceutical industries, wood carving etc. Forests provide
employment in wood based industries and by offering opportunities for
additional incomes through agro-forestry and community forestry activities.


e). Forests as wild life sanctuary,
harbouring a host of animals, birds and insects all of which are tourist
attractions.


f). Chemicals derived from wild plants
are often toxic, sometimes if they are delivered in the right way or in the
right dose, or are altered chemically, they can be used to destroy
disease-causing agents or even cancer cells.


g). Medicines: - Almost 70% modern
medicines in India
are derived from natural products. Medicinal plants play a central role as
traditional medicines and also as trade commodities, meeting the demand of
distant markets. About a quarter of all prescription drugs are taken from
plants or are chemically modified versions of plant substances, and more than
half of them are modeled on natural compounds. About 121 prescription drugs are
derived from higher plants. These include morphine, codeine, quinine, atropine
and digitals.


h). Non wood forest products of
economic value like honey, bee wax, fiber (vegetable fiber have been used for
centries to make cloth, canvas, carpets and ropes), fodder and essential oils.


i)Recreational use, especially for
people from industrialized nations including hunting, fishing etc. j) harvesting plants for
gardening, for pets.


k)Ecotourism where forest cover and
its underlying biodiversity is itself the attraction.


l) In the field of biotechnology (old and new)
where the natural capabilities are exploited and genetic engineering
where manipulation of genes for getting desired varieties are exploited.


ECONOMIC POTENTIAL OF ANIMAL DIVERSITY


a) Cattle, sheep and goats are the most versatile
livestock providing meat, milk and wool. Pigs are also the most efficient
meat-producers. Poultry has long been a source of meat and eggs.


b) Horses, mules, donkeys, camels and lamas play
significant roles in the economic activity of man.


c) Fishing is of great economic importance to
man. Fish is used as food and about
one-third of the total marine catch is converted into animal feed and
fertilizer. Fish farming, the breeding and raising of fish like farm animals,
is a continuing tradition in many parts of Asia.


d) Animal products like silk, leather,
fur,lubricants and waxes are useful.


e) Animals are used in agro-industry and diary
industry.


The ecosystem services done by the biodiversity have
been valued in the range of 16-54 trillion U.S dollars per year.







CHAPTER- 10


LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY- THREATENED, ENDANGERED
AND EXISTING SPECIES



REASONS FOR THE LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY: -


1.DESTRUCTION OF THE HABITAT: - Large
animals are at risk from habitat destruction.
. Destruction of the habitats decrease the hiding place of animals and
increases the chance of their predation. .FRAGMENTATION OF THE HABITATS
by plantations, urban colonies, orchards
cause the disappearing of animals living in the deeper parts of the forest


2.DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES: Construction of dams, reservoirs, roads,
railway lines, crop lands industries, mining etc lead to the loss in
biodiversity.


3.OVEREXPLOITATION: -The hunting of food and
fur species, collection of ornamental species, exhibiting in museums,
threatening, uncontrolled logging, recreation, over-fishing etc has resulted in
the extinction of many animals.


4.INTRODUCTION OF EXOTIC or ALIEN SPECIES: -cause
a great threat to the native species. Wherever humans moved to, they brought
along with them domesticated species of plants and animals, which introduced
predators, pests, diseases and weeds. Eg. American cockroach is threatening the
existence of native oriental cockroach. Water hyacinth threatens the survival
of many aquatic species with poor competitive ability in lakes and rivers.
Traditional crop species have been threatened by high yielding varieties. Goats
and rabbits introduced in the Pacific and Indian ocean
areas are destroying the habitats of several plants, birds and reptiles.


5.DISTURBANCE IN THE MIGRATORY ROUTES: -
because of climatic change, habitat destruction


and pollution is also great threat to wild life.


6.INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN RARE ANIMAL PRODUCTS: -like
medicines, perfumes, cosmetics, decorations, museum specimen, fur, bones, skin
etc., are the cause of destruction of species like musk deer, great one-horned
rhinoceros.


7.POLLUTION:-by organic waste, synthetic
chemicals and oil in land in water has killed thousands of species .


8. POPULATION INCREASE: -resulted in
ever expanding human settlements destroying the habitats.


9.CAUSES OF EXTINCTION: - Extinction is a
natural process, which causes due to the climatic change, competition,
predation, lack of food, diseases etc all have their effects.


10. LACK OF EDUCATION AAND AWARENESS: -about
the need for the conservation of habitats and wild animals.


11. OFFICIAL LETHARGY: - in implementing
wild Life Protection Act.


THREATENED, ENDANGERED AND EXTINCT SPECIES.


Endangered species is a species that stand at the
verge of extinction and whose numbers have been reduced to a critical level or
whose habitats have been so drastically reduced that they are deemed to be in
the immediate danger of extinction if the casual factors continue operating. It
is estimated that 81 species of mammals, 38 species of birds and 18 species of
amphibians and reptiles are endangered in India


Critically endangered plant- Barberis nilghiriensis


Critically endangered animal: - Sus salvinus.


Endangered plant: -Bentinckia nicobarica


Endangered animal: -Red panda, Golden langur,
Indian wild ass, Kashmir stag

Threatened species are those species
whose natural habitats have been disturbed due to which they are nearing
extinction and they may become extinct if the causative factors continue. They
may be either

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PostSubject: Re: EE Notes   Thu Dec 27, 2007 8:30 am

extinct, critically endangered, endangered, vulnerable
lower risk, data deficient, not evaluated.. A threatened species is the species
that is threatened with extinction because of any reasons.


Vulnerable species are those believed to move into
the endangered category in the near future if the causal factors continue
operating. It includes species with populations that have been seriously
depleted and whose ultimate security is not yet assured; it also includes
species with populations that are still abundant but are under threat from
serious adverse factors throughout their range.


Rare species are those with small populations that
are not at present endangered or vulnerable, but are at risk. These species are
usually localized within restricted geographical areas, habitats or thinly
scattered over a more extensive range.


Extinct species: - Species that have already become
extinct due to human induced factors or natural factors.


Endemic species: -Species that are found in a
single locality / area and no where in the world.


The lion-tailed macaque, the pig-tailed macaque,
Nilgiri langur, hoolock gibbon
are hunted by local tribes for its flesh and
trapped for sale.


The Himalayan brown bear, the Malayan sun bear and the
sloth bear
are hunted for their fur, gall bladder and for flesh fat.


Due to
indiscriminate hunting and killing of the tiger its population has reduced
to 1827, but under Project Tiger its population is 2287.


The Indian lion habitats the Gir forests of
Gujarat.The leopard and snow leopard are distributed in the different forests
throughout the country


The Great Indian one –horned rhinoceros was in the verge of
extinction in 1904but measures for conservation of its rehabilitation have
risen its number to 100.


The Indian wild ass has dwindled. The major reason
for its decline is the Surra disease and regular disturbance in their
habitat by salt workers.


The Kashmir stag, The swamp deer, forest musk
deer, black buck, chinkara, wild buffalo, Gangetic Dolphin
, baleen
whales and those of dolphin species
which are indiscriminately exploited
for flesh, fat, bones and ambergris are also being endangered. There are
2100 species and sub-species of birds known in India, of which a large number are
endangered.


WWW ANNOUNCES ‘10 MOST WANTED SPECIES’


1.Humphead wrasse: -This bulbous-head, coral
reef fish
is caughtand displayed live in tanks for diners in East Asian restaurants,
This species is suffering greatly because of its harvesting and slow
reproduction.


2.Tigers:-They are traded for their skins, bones
and various other parts to make Chinese medicines.


3.Ramin: -This tropical hardwood from Indonesia and Malaysia used to make mass produced
pool cues, moulding, and picture frames.


4.Great White Sharks: -The larges of the sharks,
poached for jaws, teeth and fins which collect high prices having great demand
world wide.


5.Irrawady dolphins: - They are of great demand for
display in zoos and aquariums.


6.Asian elephants: -Poaching for ivory and meat and
serious habitat loss have made this species endangered.


7.Pig nosed turtles: -suffers from high demand of
the international trade.


8.Yellow crested cockatoos: -Exotic looking birds
are highly prized in the international pet trade.


CITES has proposed to put an end to its marketing.


9.Leaf-tailed gackos: -All the 10 species are sold
at a very high prize in the international pet market. They are also threatened
by habitat loss and fragmentation.


10.Asian yew trees: -are harvested for their bark
and needles, which contain a chemical used in cancer medication called Taxol.


RED DATA BOOK: -is the book published in
1995 by the IUCN (Switzerland)
that records the list of all the endangered species of plants and animals.


MAN AND BIOSPHERE PROGRAMME; -(MAB) is an
interdisciplinary biological programme of research, which emphasizes an
internal ecological approach to the study of relationships between man and the
environment, its impact and the effect of pollution on the different
environments for the purpose of developing a basis(conservation strategies) for
the rational use and conservation of the biosphere


WWF-WORLD WILD LIFE FUND FOR NATURE: -is a
non-governmental organization with its headquarters at Glands, Switzerland
formed in 1961. It provides financial support for wildlife protection and acts
to safeguard the wild-life of the world wherever threatened.


INDICATOR SPECIES: -is the species having a
narrow tolerance range for some environmental factors. Their occurrence at a
particular place indicate the corresponding habitat conditions. Eg Lichens in
an area denotes unpolluted environment.


CONSERVATION: -is the wise and judicious use
of resources for its preservation, which is very essential for the well-being
and survival of man. OR it is the scientific management of surroundings for
preventing its exploitation and depletion as it is very essential for human
existence.












CHAPTER
11



STRATEGIES FOR CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY IN-SITU AND EX-SITU


Conservation of the biodiversity is the management of
the biosphere in such a way that it may yield the greatest sustainable benefit
to present generations while maintaining its potential to meet the needs and
aspirations of future generations.



It was only in the year 1968 at an international
conference (UNESCO1968) that the problem of conservation of flora and fauna was
given importance and several recommendations were made urging the international
biological programme (IBP), IUCN, and various national and international
organizations to initiate studies in the problems involved.


STRATEGIES
FOR CONSERVATION: -(World conservation strategies
launched by IUCN, UNEP and WWF in 1980)


1.Protection of animals and plants in their natural
habitat(in-situ) and in zoological and botanical gardens(ex-situ).


2.Preservation of critical habitats(the feeding, breeding,
nursey and nesting areas) of the organisms to promote their growth and
multiplication.


3.Priority should be given to endangered species over a
vulnerable species and to vulnerable species over rare species.


4.Proper management of life supporting systems of the wild
life.


5.Prohibiting the hunting of young, threatened and
breeding animals. The hunter should have licence.


6.Protecting the habitats of migratory birds by bilateral
or multilateral agreements.


7.Regulating the international trade in useful products of
wild plants and animals.


8.Educating people on the importance of wild life and its
conservation.


9.Preventing over exploitation of useful products of wild
life.


10.Species and ecosystems should not be exploited beyond
their productive capacities.


11.Priority should be given for the protection of unique
ecosystems.


12.Provides legal measures for the protection of wild
animals.


13.Coordinating National Conservation Programme with the
International programmes specially those of UNESCO, IUCN, UNEP etc.


PROTECTED AREAS; -


These are areas of land or sea especially divided
biogeographically dedicated to the protection, management and maintenance of
biological diversity, and the natural and associated cultural resources through
legal and effective measures. There are 37,000 protected areas worldwide that
have been recognized by World Conservation Monitoring Centre. India has 581
protected areas of national parks and wild life sanctuaries covering 4.7% land
surface against 10% internationally.


Conservation refers to efforts to maintain or enhance
biodiversity which includes either in-situ or ex-situ conservation
. Agencies handling biodiversity conservation
and information are: World Conservation Monitoring Centre [UK], World Conservation Union [IUCN
Switzerland],World Wildlife Fund for Nature [WWF], FOA Commission of Plant Genetic Resources [Rome], International Board for Plant and
Genetic Resources [IBPGR], United Nations Environment Programme [UNEB Nairobi].


EX-SITU CONSERVATION: -


Refers to the maintenance of wildlife in stable
populations outside their original habitats usually as seeds in seeds in
genebanks at subzero temperatures, zoos and botanical gardens, aquaria etc.


Goals of ex-situ conservation: -


1.Prevent immediate extinction of critically endangered
species.


2.Ex situ conservation of wild varieties of domesticated
crops provides great opportunities to plant breeders and genetic engineers to
transfer desired traits in high yielding varieties. These off springs can be
released to their natural homes to restore the dwindling population.


3.Ex situ conservation helps in maintaining populations of
wild species by rising up new generations, supplying surplus plants and animals
to other places or reintroducing them in suitable wild habitats. Thus they
provide support for the survival of species in their natural environment.


4. It gives longer lifespan and breeding activity to
animals as it is always under human care.


1. Bio
laboratories
conduct ex situ culture collection of microorganisms such as,
algae, fungi, bacteria and virus, which could be maintained in culture
conditions. UNESCO has developed microbiology resource centers in 19 countries.
The centers in Asia are in Bangkok, Osaka, Tokyo
and Beijing.Over 12,000 threatened plant species are thriving in over 1500
botanical gardens
and arboreta all over the world. The collections
are maintained as trees, shrubs and herbs, dried or refrigerated seed samples,
as clonal collections and as tissue cultures.


2. Aquaria
are also used in the conservation of aquatic organisms.


3. Genebanks- They are institutions that maintain
stocks of viable seeds [seed banks], live growing plants [orchards], tissue
culture and frozen germplasm with the whole range of genetic variability. There
are two types of gene banks, orthodox. -which can tolerate reduction in moisture
content, anaerobic conditions at low temperature, for e.g. cereals, legumes. At
intervals the seeds are allowed to germinate, form plants and develop fresh
seeds for storage. and recalcitrant are those seeds that get killed on
reduction of moisture and exposure to low temperatures, for e.g. tea and
coconuts. They can be stored for shorter durations after treatment with
fungicides in rooms having humid air and normal oxygen.


4. Tissue culture: -is useful in maintaining a
large number of genotypes in small areas, rapid multiplication of endangered
species and for hybrid rescue. Shoot tip culture maintains virus free plants.
It is used for international exchange of germplasm in vegetatively multiplied
cultivators eg bananas and potatoes


1.
5. Cryopreservation: -is the preservation at
–1960 C in liquid nitrogen, which can maintain tissue culture,
embryos, animal cell, tissues,
spermatozoa. Frozen and subsequently thawed sperm have been used to fertilize
antelopes, deer, apes and wolves with young resulting from these undertakings.
By cryopreservation germplasm can be stored for a long period of time.

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PostSubject: Re: EE Notes   Thu Dec 27, 2007 8:30 am

6. Captive Breeding: -The process of breeding endangered animals
by capturing them from their natural environment, breeding them in restricted
conditions in zoos national parks, aquariums and other cnsrvtn facilities, and
releasing them back to the wild when the population stabilizes. Advantages are


1.The threat
to that animal in the wild is lessened or removed.


2.Maintain a
healthy age structure.


3.Saves the
species from diseases, competition etc and prevents extinction.


4.It is also
meant for the education and exhibition of interesting species.


5. Establish
population that are large enough to be stable and healthy and to ensure that
reproduction is reliably successful.


The number of zoos/zoological
parks is more than 800.They have about 3,000 species of mammals, birds,
reptiles and amphibians. Most of them have well managed captive breeding
programmes.


7. Animal translocation: -It
is the release of animals in a new locality which come from somewhere else
other than the place in which they are being released after maintaining it in
captive for sometime.


Disadvantages of Ex-situ
conservation:-



1.They are much smaller
including only 10-100s of individuals. They are therefore susceptible to random
process that leads to a loss in genetic variability.


2.They are divided into many
small subpopulations. A danger of inbreeding through the breeding of close
relatives within these sub-populations exists if there is not an exchange
between the subpopulations.


3.The animals live in
conditions that are different from those in their natural habitats and thus
there is a risk of unnatural selective pressures acting on them and sometimes
it becomes difficult for the animals to adjust in the wild conditions.


4.They do
not provide a panacea for conserving naturally occurring genetic resources and
protecting the habitat in the phase of changing environmental conditions.


5.It is not always possible to maintain the favorable environmental
condition always.


IN-SITU CONSERVATION: -


Refers to maintaining plants
and animals in their original habitat. It is the most effective means of
conserving diversity together with dynamic environment. The different In-situ
methods of conservation are National parks, Sanctuaries, biosphere reserves
etc.


NATIONAL PARK: -
is a protected areas maintained by the
government which is strictly reserved for the betterment of wildlife and where
activities like forestry, grazing, cultivation and habitat manipulation are not
permitted. There are 89 N.Ps in India. Some of the famous national parks in India are


1.Corbet
National park
: -India’s first and finest national parks which
supports tiger, deer, wild boar, elephant etc. spread along the banks of the
RamGanga river in the foothills of Himalayas.


2.Dudhwa
National Park
: -In North India. This park has distinction of having the
largest surviving population of endangered species of one-horned rhino and
swamp deer.


3.Kazhiranga
National Park: -
Small national park
famous for one-horned rhino, located on the banks of the Brahmaputra River.


4.Pench
National Park:
-in the lower
southern reaches of the Satputra hills named after the Pench
River which flows from north to south
through the Pench
National park. This reserve
was recently included under the Project Tiger as the (19th project Tiger
Reserve).


SANCTUARIES: -An
area where killing, hunting, shooting, capturing of any species of birds or
animal is prohibited except under the control of the highest authority in the
department responsible for the management of the sanctuary. They are the tracts
of lands with or without lakes where wild animals can take refuge without being
hunted. Other activities like collection of forest products, harvesting of
timber, private ownership, tilling of land
etc are allowed. Thus they
provide protection and maximum living conditions to wild animals.


1.Bhandipur wildlife
sanctuary
: Near Mysore
city and has plenty of gaurs, elephants, leapord, Chital etc.


2.Manas wildlife sanctuary:
-A habitat of rhinoceros located in one of the remotest region among the
foothills of Himalayas.


3.Gir national park and
sanctuary
: -sole surviving natural habitat of the Asiatic lion popularly
known as Sasangir, this national park is blessed with most diverse wild
creatures.


4.Sariska wildlife sanctuary:
-Most visited sanctuary in India
located in Rajasthan. It was previously considered a national park, declared a
national park in1958 and came under Project Tiger in1979.


The most imp sanctuaries for
the preservation of the coastal ecosystem are the Chilka lake in Orrisa and
Point Calimere in Tamil Nadu.



BIOSPHERE RESERVE: -The
concept of biosphere reserve(an international biological programme) has been
evolved in 1975 by the Man and Biosphere Reserve of the UNESCO. (introduced
in India
in 1986)*They are protected areas
used to fulfill following functions.


1.Conservation of
landscapes, ecosystems, species including rare and endangered species andbiodiversity
without uprooting the local people.


2.The development of
socio-culturally and ecologically sustainable economic and human
infrastructure.


3.Provision of
logistical support for research and education related to both conservation and
development.


4. Information exchange
related to both conservation and development.


5. Restoration of the
degraded ecosystems and habitats.


6.Maintenance of
traditional life style (tribal people) and traditional resources.


7..Ensure
development of culture and development and progress of conservation process.


Planning and management of each
reserve involves the participation of public authorities, local communities and
private interests. The Ministry of Environment and forests provides
financial assistance to the respective state governments for conservation and
management of these biosphere reserves.


India has identified 13 areas
to be declared as biosphere reserves. Of these, Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve,
including parts of Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu was declared in 1986 and
Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve in 1988. Others include Nokrek, Great Nicobar, Gulf of Mannar, Manas, the Sundarbans and the
Agasthyamalai hills in kerala A
biosphere reserve may be divided into 3 zones. 1. Core zone or natural zone: -
where
no human activity is allowed and this area is undisturbed and legally protected.2.Buffer
zone: -
surrounds the area where activities like resource use strategies,
research and education are carried out. Here limited human activity is allowed.3.
Transition or manipulation zone: -
is the outermost or peripheral part where large no. of human activities like
settlements, cropping, recreation, forestry etc is allowed.


Objectives of In-situ
Conservation (advantages)



1.Protection of the natural
habitats by making use of the resources in a limited way.


2.Protection and maintenance of
the viable number of species.


3.Instead of concentrating to a
single species large number of species is conserved and also provides
opportunity for evolution.


4.Conducting research in
specific areas of wild life.


5.Protection of local people as
they are important in conservation and educating the public.


6.Restoration of the degraded
ecosystem.


7.Recovery of threatened
species.


8.No human interference,
which is the major factor for extinction.


Disadvantages.


1.
It is very difficult to understand the correct number
of animals and the species which are facing extinction.


2.
Lack of information on most species so that it is
difficult to give attention on endangered species.


  • Uncertainties about how effective hand-off management
    can be for maintaining genetic diversity in systems that are substantially
    influenced by human activities.
  • No serious attempts have been made, even for wild
    relatives of crop species, to elevate in-situ management of targeted
    species to a prominent place on conservation
  • In-situ programmes will not always be available to
    maintain the diversity of species,




populations and genetic resources.


TRADITIONAL FORMS OF
BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION.



1.SACRED GROVES AND SACRED LAKES: -are
forest patches and lakes around places of worship which are respected and
considered sacred by the tribal communities.


*They are most undisturbed
patches that represent islands of pristine forests without any human impacts
and surrounded by highly degraded landscape.


*They helps in the preservation
of biodiversity which contain endemic and endangered plant and animal species
as certain rules like prohibiting the felling of trees, collection of any
material from the forest floor and the killing of animals are followed there.


*Sacred groves contain water
reservoirs such as ponds and streams and the vegetative mass that covers the
floor of the grove can absorb water during rainy seasons and release it during
times of drought.


*Certain lakes are
considered sacred in some regions. Thus aquatic flora and fauna is also
protected.Eg. Khecheopalri lake in Sikkim has been declared sacred by
the people to save aquatic life from degradation.


*Many states [Karnataka, Maharashtra,
Kerala, Meghalaya etc] possess sacred groves and lakes.


Bishnois are some
people found in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana who are
ecologically aware and have been practicing environmental conservation,
holistic science and resource management. They have compassion for all living
beings and follow only vegetarian diet. They protect the black bug, the
khedjali trees etc and so they are very important in preserving the
biodiversity.


INTERNATIONAL EFFORTS AND
CONSERVATION STRATEGIES.



2.Earth Summit:
-
Held at Rio de Jenario, Brazil, which resulted into
Convention on Biodiversity (CBD), signed by 152 nations. It came into force
from 29th of Dec.,1993.The 3 major objectives: -1. Sustainable use
of biodiversity. @. Conservation of biodiversity. 3.Justified sharing of
benefits.


The five important agreements are


A)Agenda 21: -One of the
most important agreements of the earth Summit
held at Rio de Janeiro
in 1992. 21 stands for 21st century. It was signed by different
leaders who represented about 98% of global population. *It is a blue print for
encouraging sustainable development of diversity through social, economic and
environmental measures in the 21st century. The main aim of Agenda
21 is to atop and reverse environment drainage. B) Climate Treaty:
-Is for controlling population keeping in mind the global warming and green
house effects. All countries are required to have a joint concern and effect
taking remedial measures to reduce production of such gases. C)Rio
declaration
:-It has the goal of establishing a new and equitable global
partnership through the creation of new levels of cooperation among states and other key sectors of societies and
people. This declaration emphasizes on working towards international agreements
which respects the interests of all and protect the integrity of the global envtal
and devpmtal system, recognizing the integral and interdependent nature of the
earth, our volume) D) Biodiversity Treaty: -Gave the definition of
biodiversity. All countries signing to the ‘Biodiversity treaty” accepted
responsibility for conserving biological diversity and using biological
resources in a sustainable manner. E) Forest Agreement: -To enhance
safety of habitats and virgin forest lands. It also kept in mind the loss of
forests due to fires and other commercial activities.

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PostSubject: Re: EE Notes   Thu Dec 27, 2007 8:31 am

1.Strategy of 1992: -launched
by UNEP, IUCN, WWF, World Bank, World resource Institute etc. *It aims at
identifying the priority areas for conservation, specifying how conservation
aims can be integrated with development plans. *Providing support for national
conservation programmes. *Promoting international cooperation in
achieving these ends.


3. Agenda 21: -is
an out come of Earth’s Summit.
4. IUCN of 1948: -Headquarters in Morges, Switzerland.
*Its concerns are with the modification of the natural environment by humans
through the rapid growth of urbanization, industrialization and the rapid
exploitation of the natural resources which is very essential for the
sustenance of man.


5.CONVENTION ON
INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES (CITES): --
came into effect
in 1975. It aims at international cooperation for the protection of certain
species of wild flora and fauna against over exploitation through international
trade. *It provides for the cooperation at international level without which
illegal trade cannot be controlled. More than 150 countries including India are
signatories. It lists over 900 species that cannot be traded as live specimens
or wild life products. It restricts the international trade of 29,000 other
species that are potentially threatened.


6.Designation of 1994-2003 as the decade of
international biodiversity: -*
Provide opportunity to design and
implement international efforts to create more awareness and creation of an Early
Warning Network
.


Chapter—12


MITIGATING PEOPLE –
WILDLIFE CONFLICT



Many times wildlife cause a lot
of damage (loss to crops, livestock, property ) and danger to man, thus
creating conflicting situations between man and animal. Many reasons can be
attributed to man-wildlife conflicts and the impacts of this conflict is often
huge as threatened species are often killed by the people to prevent the damage
caused by these animals.

Examples of people-wildlife conflicts




*Annually about 4050 people
become victims of tigers from the sanctuaries annually.


*Over 200 people are killed by
elephants each year and the wildlife authorities in Kenya shoot about 50-120 problem
elephants each year.


*Elephants destroying the oil
palm plantations and timber estates in Riau,
Indonesia are
estimated to be around 105 million US dollars and dozens of elephants are
poisoned each year in these plantations.


*Tigers from the Dhudhwa national
park had killed 450 people since 1978. Tigers from Sunderbans, Rathanbhor and
other reserves are also threatening man when they go for collecting fodder from
these reserves.


*Amur leopards attacking the
captive deer of farmers which force them to eliminate the leopards. In the
absence of wild dear they prey upon the deer in the farms.


*Jaguars and Spectated Bears in Latin America attacking the livestock and corn crops.


*Bears and wolves throughout Europe are killed as they prey upon the livestock and
water pipes, rubbish bins, storehouses of food etc.


Causes of Man-wildlife conflicts.


1 Destruction of habitats of
wild animals as a result of extension of agricultural land, industrial
development, dams compels the wild animals to move out of the forests and
attack the fields and humans. Men get revengeful and kill the wild animals
.Eg
;-Elephants require a large habitat and their daily requirement of fodder
requires a larger home range since it takes time for plants to regenerate to
feed the elephants. So this may compels it to move out from the forests into
the fringes where there are human settlements.


2.Settlement of people into
the forest area because of expanding populations is another reason for
the
conflict as it is an issue of survival of both
. The females of many wild
animals often attack humans, when they feel that their new-borns are in danger.


3.When the wild animals get
injured or becomes weak, it develops a tendency to attack man.



4.When some wild animals taste
human flesh once, it may becomes a man-eater. In the process of tracing and
killing such animal many innocent animals will be killed.


5.When there is a shortage of
staple food(natural prey preference) for wild animals in wildlife sanctuaries
and national parks,
the animals move out in search of food and cause
massive damage in the crop fields of surrounding areas and to the livestock.
The agonized farmers kill the animals and raise their protest against these
projects. Baboons in Namibia
attacking young cattle, the one-horned rhino in Nepal
destroying the crops, snow leopards in Nepal attacking the livestocks. 6.When
there is a disruption in migratory routes of wild animals due to development of
human settlements, the migratory animals attack these settlements.



7.Often, the government does
not pay sufficient compensation for the damage caused by the wild animals to
the farmer’s crop.


8.Increase in the number of
the certain animals due to their protection made them raiding the crops of the
villagers which make the people in these areas anti-conversationalists
. Eg.
Protection of the black bucks by the Bishnois, the protection of nilgai in
Rajesthan etc increased their number and
this has led to their destroying of crops of the community.


.Measures to curb the
conflicts



1.Providing adequate fodder, food
and water for the wild animals within the forest zone with the help of the
villagers so that the animals will not come out of the forests in search of
food and water.


2.Cultivation of crops in the borders
of forests that are not liked by the wild animals.


3.Solar powered fencing should be
provided along with electric proof trenches to prevent wild animals from
straying into fields.


4.Providing wildlife corridors
and conserving them for migratory wild animals during unfavorable periods so
that they can move from one forest to other without disturbing men 5.The forest
guards should be provided with vehicles, guns, binoculars, radio sets and
sufficient training etc to tactfully deal with any emergency situation.


6..Establishment of different
projects to mitigate human-tiger conflicts by the WWF and many other
conservation organizations, in partnership with the governments.


a)These include providing
livelihood alternatives to local communities to reduce their dependence on
forest resources.


b).The government should make
provisions for the adequate compensation to the farmers for the crops
damaged by the wild animals.


c)Chilly and tobacco-based
deterrents to keep elephants out of fields.


d)Changing farming practices-making
farms easier to defend.


7.Making the villagers aware of
the reasons for the attack of wild animals and the needs to protect these
animals.


8.Trained men working with the
farmers to protect the livestock and property and human life.


9.Building barbed fences or
trenches around communities.


10.Building water holes within
the forest and maintaining a buffer zone between forest and human hablitation.


SLCC:-Snow Leapord
Conservation Committee
, a sub-committee elected by the village and
established
by the Annapurna Conservation Area Project(ACAP) founded in 1986 to
manage the Annapurna areaof Central-north Nepal, to oversee issues related to
snow leopard and to help ensure its conservation.


Bioscape: -Wildlife trust
defines a bioscape as “a social- ecological landscape whose geographic boundary
is set by a common sphere of human influence, and it serves as a regional unit
for integrating the natural and built environments through science, natural
resource management, public health policy, local valuers, and other activities
required to ensure ecological health and sustainability”.





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PostSubject: Re: EE Notes   Thu Dec 27, 2007 8:32 am

Chapter-13


Need for
environmental management vis-à-vis development.



How environment and development are connected with each
other?



Environment and development are the two side of the same
coin. All the things needed for
development is provided by the environment i.e. the environment can be thought
of as the stock of physical or social resources available at a given time for
the satisfaction of human needs. Eg minerals, fossil fuels, forests, adequate
and reliable rainfall, moderate temperature and other aspects of climate that
make agriculture possible.


But all the developmental activities and use of new
technologies have depleted the available stock of resources and created
environmental problems.


Development cannot subsist upon deteriorating
environmental resource base and at the same time we cannot stop all the
developmental activities and go back to old simplistic lifestyle.


Thus protecting of the environment is as important as
development. The two concepts are totally interdependent and form the essence
of the concept sustainable development.


Thus for development to subsist the environment should
managed carefully and preserved for the well-being of the present and future
generations.


What is development?


Development means industrial, agricultural and economic
growth and it is measured as the growth rate of industrialization and it
include people’s education, health, nutrition, organization, discipline and
honest labour all aimed to increase the welfare of the people. Industry and
industrialization are the key elements of development and the major creators of
wealth.


What is environmental management?


Environmental management includes management of all the
technical, economic and other aspects of the bio-physical environment, both
living and non-living, aimed at the development of the environment and to
preserve the maximum evolutionary potential of the biosphere for human
benefit.


It is the process of balancing the socio-economic,
technological and ecological forces in development and allocation of resources
in order to satisfy the logical and legal desires of the present and future
generations.


Thus it involves
prevention and control measures, policy framing, modeling and
environmental monitoring.


It aims at creating minimum pollution, minimizing the usage
of resources so as to lead to sustainable development.


Need for environmental mannagement


1. For the sustenance of the socio-political system aimed
at the welfare of the people, protection of the environment is as important as
development.


2. Our development has far-by crossed the carrying
capacity of the earth, in that it has
led to extreme stresses and irreparable loss to the ecosystem. (a)Various
problems like pollution, diseases, natural calamities, soil erosion and
desertification, destruction of forests and wildlife etc are increasing.
(b)Depletion of resources so that there will be nothing left behind for the
future generations.


3. For enhancing productivity and competitiveness and
reducing environmental costs of development.


4. Identifying a developmental path which harmonizes with
environmental considerations as we cannot halt all the developmental activities
and go back to the simplistic lifestyle.


5. Protection and development of the environment so that
present and future generation can get the benefit.


6.Development which is meant for the removal of poverty,
creating employment, education, health affluence has created problems that
cause poverty, lack of employment, diseases etc



What are the threats in environmental management


1. Lack
of awareness and willingness to adopt sustainable development.


2. Insatiable
needs and wants.


3. Equality
between rich and poor.


4. Gender
inequalities.


5. Inequitable
sharing of resources between developed and developing countries.


6. Lack
of technologies and means for adopting sustainability


How to carry out environment management.


The government of nation hold the responsibility to
harmonize environmental protection with development objectives and serve as the
focal point for planning, promotion and coordination of various environmental
and forestry programmes.


The following steps can be followed for environmental
development.


·
An analysis of the existing environmental
situation and behavior and interaction of the various components of the
environment, including man


·
A study of the dynamics of boundary conditions
to yield an understanding of thresholds or outer limits and survey and
conservation of natural resources.


·
.The setting of social, economic and
environmental goals, and definitions of specific objectives by which to achieve
them.


·
The formulation of a balanced programme for the
evolution of both man-made and natural components of the environment. Impact
assessment on development projects


·
The development of criteria for evaluating and
ranking programmes such as equity, economic efficiency, reduction in
dependence, administrative cost, effect on political structure etc.


·
The
promotion, guidance and supervision of such a programme, which includes the
continuous monitoring of the economic, ecological and social impacts of the
programme.


·
Research extension, education, training, and
creation of environmental awareness and dissemination of information.


CHAPTER 14


ASPECTS OF
ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT



1. Technological
aspects. (promotion and control of cleaner technologies)



It includes the technical
measures that can be used to reduce pollution and to maintain and improve the
ambient quality of the environment or in achieving environment quality targets
which may include


·
Recycling and reuse of materials(water) now 40%
of steel, copper and silver can be recycled.


·
Use of conventional sources of energy which is
free of pollution and prevents depletion of fossil fuels.(wind energy,
geothermal energy tidal energy etc)


·
Fuel-efficient designs of automobile engines to
save energy and improve emission standards, use of CNG and other fuels in
vehicles.


·
Development of more dependable and accurate
pollution measuring devices for which researches are going on.


·
Change in product mix and product output.
Production of biodegradable plastics by adding cornstarch to them during the
manufacturing process so that when disposed in soil, microorganisms feed on the
starch helping to break the plastic apart.


·
Making use of by-products Waste from one
industry form the raw material for another industry.eg waste from sugar
industry (bagasse) is used as a raw material for the production of electricity
or in the paper industry and the waste
from these can be used to make organic manure so that the cycle that pollute
air, land and water can be reduced.


·
Change in the raw materials used. Eg for using
wood pulp for making paper, hemp can be used which helps in the conservation of
trees. Use of glass fibre instead of copper in communication


2. Ethical
aspects



Ethics is the philosophical
study of moral values. Environmental ethics is the application of ethical study
to environmental concerns.


The ethical aspect of
environment management is growing at the cultural level by the
redefinition of concepts, world views, lifestyles and values, political
level
through he strengthening of people’s environment movements and
actions and at the policy level through he impact of people’s movement
for a more balanced and stable development.


·
Man has to depend upon the environment for his
survival and hence he has the moral right to protect the environment.


·
Everything has been created by the God almighty
and hence everybody has equal right to live in this environment and man should
not have right over the life or the life support system of other organisms.


·
We should understand the values of the local or
poor people and should sustain these values by providing conditions for their
survival.


·
Intra generational equity: -(i)There
should be a balance between global needs and local needs or reconcile the
forces of globalization and localization. (ii) Ensure that the resources
should be spend for development taking into account the relative scale of the
potential impacts (iii) spatial distribution of risks and benefits. (iv)
involving public opinion in decision making. (v) Polluter’s pay principle
where the polluters are mainly responsible for pollution and they should not be
subsidized in widely accepted environmental legislation even if they are
influential. (vi) Globally powerful nations exploit the weaker ones by
misusing their resources and knowledge. Eg 1. Biopiracy where certain companies
take advantage of the resources and knowledge and be patented . 2. Oil from
Gulf countries monopolized by powerful nations. 3. Increasing the height may
increase the production and satisfy the global need of electricity, but the
impact of this to the local population should also be considered. 4. dumping of
waste into weaker nations by the powerful nations.


·
Intergenerational equity which ensures
sustainability where the present and the future generation can reap the
benefits, freedoms and choices as the
environment is for all. This involves
*minimizing risks to future generations *providing resources to them and
enabling them to handle it *reducing financial risks to future generations
*maximizing freedom of choice *to take prudent preventive actions to deal with
risks that will have serious
consequences in future (precautionary principle)


·
In order to attain proper management of
environment to satisfy our logical and legal needs our value systems, attitudes
and behaviour should change as it is our duty to look after the ones with
lesser powers.


3. Social
aspects: -



·
We have the social responsibility to create a
healthy, peaceful world for ourselves and for the future generations


·
We should work for the future environment with
compassion and create an environment ready to accommodate the smallest the
smallest insect to the largest creature in harmony with human beings.


·
Advancement in medical facilities and improving
the health and happiness.


·
Proper education to all is required for adopting
sustainability as part of our life.

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PostSubject: Re: EE Notes   Thu Dec 27, 2007 8:32 am

·
Population reduction, family welfare programmes
and welfare of women is also very essential for environment management.


·
Change in the lifestyle and reducing the
disparities between rich and poor are also important as people with more
consumeristic lifestyles are the most contributories of pollution compared to
simple form of societies.


·
For sound environmental management there is a
great need to sensitize the society and make them aware of vital environment
issues.


4.Economical aspects:


·
Optimal use and correct pricing of the resources
(water and electricity)are necessary to minimize their wastage and misuse.


·
Depletion of resources and increase in the price
of the commodity compel persons to use less so that conservation is possible


·
Every product should follow pollution control
norms.


·
User charges can be collected with the
participation of community.


·
Identification of the needs and wants and the
resources needed to satisfy this needs keeping in mind how these needs will
inhibit or increase the ability to meet others as a result of , degradation or
enhancement of resources.


·
Environment Resource Accounting (ERA) It is necessary to know the
benefits of a development project, to know the cost of resource depletion,
degradation and replenishing that is required in the form of monetary values.
The total cost of the resource can account for the depletion , damages, cost
and benefits obtained by the enhanced environment quality. This will help in
getting the right price of the resource.


·
Extended
Producer Responsibility (EPR)
the principle of Extended Producer Responsibility would be
stated as: Producers of products should bear a significant degree of
responsibility (physical and/or financial) not only for the environmental
impacts of their products downstream from the treatment and/or disposal of the
product, but also for their upstream activities inherent in the selection of
materials and in the design of products.
A primary function of EPR
is the transfer of the costs and/or physical responsibility of waste management
from local government authorities and the general taxpayer to the producer or
manufacturer. They must either take the balk spend products and manage them
through recycling or in energy production, or delegate this responsibility to a
third party,(PRO-Producer responsibility organization), which is spend by the
producer for spend product management. Environmental costs of treatment and
disposal could then be incorporated into the cost of the product. This creates
the setting for a market to emerge that truly reflects the environmental
impacts of the product, and in which consumers could make their selection
accordingly. In some countries.



·
National
Resource Accounting (NRA)

It is a satellite account designed on the principles of the System of
National Accounts(SNA).
The information in the accounts can be applied in
various ways to enhance sustainable development. It highlights environmental
depletion, and how economic activities utilize natural resources and affect the
environment so that we can understand what kind of policy action is required to
rectify the situations.












CHAPTER 15


LEGAL PROVISIONS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT


Environmental legislations are necessary for the
implementation of the policies and programmes of environmental management at
the national and international level for the protection of the resources and
the environment. It is required for guiding, regulating and controlling human
behaviour and actions on individual basis and institutional basis. This helps
in the rational use, management, protection and improvement of the environment
and its resources. It is necessary for encompassing guidelines for proper
actions and for levying penalties and punishing those who violate the laid down
norms and laws


INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL
DEVELOPMENT
.



International laws aim to evolve an integrated legal
approach to environment management and solve environmental related conflicts at
regional and global levels. Today the world has more than 200 international
environmental laws, 600 bilateral agreements and more than 150 regional
legislations [mostly European union.].Institutions like


1. The United Nations and its specialized agencies;



2. International non-governmental organizations
[NGO’s]
like the International Union for Conservation of Nature [IUCN],
Friends of the Earth [FOE], Green- peace International, World Wide Fund for
Nature [WWF];


3.Regional institutions like the European Union [EU],
the Commonwealth, Association of South East Asians Nations [ASEAN],
Organization of African Unity [OAU], South Asian Association for Regional
Cooperation and so on, as also


4.Special purpose institutions like the
International Whaling Commission[IWC], International Seabed
Authority[ISA],International Tribunal on Law of the Sea[ITLOS], facilitates
implementation of these environmental
laws.


5.In1972 an international body called United
Nations Environment Program [UNEP]
was constituted to promote international
co- operation on matters relating to environment. It monitors the environment
world wide through its program known as ‘Earth watch ‘. It has initiated
projects on various fields like climate, ozone layer, water disposal, marine
environment, urban environment etc.


The various treaties conventions of United Nations include


1.Nuclear Weapons Test Ban Treaty-1968 [first treaty].


2.African Conventions on Conservation of Natural
Resources-1968.


3.Treaty of Oil Pollution in Seas-1969.


4.Treaty of Outer Space-1971.


5.Convention of Wet Lands-1971.


6.Convention of protection of World Cultural and natural
heritage-1972.


6.United Nations Conference on Human environment at
Stockholm
[Sweden]
–1972. In the United
Nations Conference on Human Environment held at Stockholm on 5-6 June 1972 “Declaration of
the Human Environment” was adopted. This was in fact the beginning of
environment movement in the world.


7. United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development
held at Rio de Janeiro
in June 1992. It is popularily known as Earth Summit. It was the largest
summit ever held on any topic. Delegates from 175 nations including more than
100 heads of the state attended.

LEGAL PROVISIONS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN INDIA




India
was the first country to insert an amendment into its Constitution allowing the
State to protect and improve the environment for safeguarding public health,
forests and wild life. The 42nd amendment was adopted in 1976 and
went into effect January 3, 1977.The Constitution of India states that it is
the duty of the state and every citizen to protect and improve the environment
and to safe guard the forests and wild life of the country. In India there are
three clauses in the constitution for the protection of environment i.e.47, 48A
and 51A. Important legislations of our central government are


AIR POLLUION ACTS


  • Motor
    Vehicle Act, 1939[repealed by Act No.59 of 1988]: - state that all
    hazardous waste must be properly packed, labeled and transported.
  • The Air
    [prevention and control of pollution] Act, 1981 [amended in 1987].



WATER POLLUTION ACTS


  • The
    Water [prevention and control of pollution] Act, 1974[amended in 1988]:
    -*establishes an institutional structure for the prevention and abatement
    of water pollutions. *also establishes standards for water quality and
    efficient. Pollution control board was constituted under this Act.
  • The
    Water [prevention and control of pollution] Cess Act, 1977 [amended in
    1991]:-to provide for the collection of cess on water consumed by
    specified industries and local authorities. It was amended in 1991 as the
    responsibility and workload of Pollution Control boards increased and
    funds available with these boards.



RADIATION


1.The Atomic Energy Act, 1962


PESTICIDES


1. The Insecticides Act, 1968: - regulates the
manufacture and distribution of insecticides through licensing, packaging,
labeling and transporting. It also provides for worker’s safety during the
manufacture and handling of insecticides.


MISCELLANEOUS


1.The Indian Fisheries Act, 1897


2.The Indian
Forest Act, 1927


3.The Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954


4.The Ancient
Monuments and
Archeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958



5.The Wild life Protection Act, 1972:
-*protection of birds and animals by the protection of their habitat. Setting
up and management of sanctuaries and national parks. Setting up of Central Zoos
Authority, control of zoos and captive breeding. Control of trade and
commerce in wild animals, animalarticles*It was amended in [1982]
introducing provisions permitting the capture and transportation of wild
animals for the scientific management of animal population. *It was amended for
the third time in [1991] for the protection of specified plants and the
regulation of zoos, need for tribal and forest dwellers, and introduced changes
to advance their welfare.


6.The Urban Land [ceilings and regulation] Act, 1976


7.The Forest [conservation]
Act, 1980 [amended in 1988]: -*for the protection and conservation of the
forests * prohibiting or regulating non-forest use of forestland.

8.Environment
Protection Act [1986
]:-
formulated in the
wake of Bhopal Gas Tragedy in December 1984 .It provides general powers to the
Central Government to take all necessary measures for the purpose of 1.
Protecting and improving the quality of the environment .2. Preventing,
controlling and abating environmental pollution through rules which include 3.
Laying down standards for the quality of environment in its various aspects and
for emission of pollutants from different sources 4. Prohibits and restricts
the establishment of industry

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PostSubject: Re: EE Notes   Thu Dec 27, 2007 8:33 am

and their process in different areas 5.laying down
procedures and safe guards for the prevention of accidents that cause
environmental pollution 6.laying down procedures for the handling of hazardous
substances and examination of such manufacturing process and
materials.7.collection and dissemination of information on environmental
pollution.


9.The Energy Conservation Act [2001]:-
promoting the efficient use of energy and its conservation by adopting energy
efficient measures in various sectors of the economy such as creating consumer
awareness and disseminating information on efficient use of energy etc.


10.The Biological Diversity Act [2002]: - to
protect India’s
rich bio diversity and associated knowledge against their use by foreign
individuals and organizations without sharing the benefits arising out of such
use and check biopiracy. The Act provides for the setting up of a National
Biodiversity Authority [NBA] and State Biodiversity Boards [SBBs] to consult
Biodiversity Management committees [BMCs] in decisions relating to the use of
biological resources/related knowledge within their jurisdiction .BMCs are to
promote conservation sustainable use and documentation of biodiversity.


In addition to these Acts,
environmental rules and notifications are there for the preservation and
protection of the environment.


SOME ENVIRONMENTAL RULES


a. Forest (conservation)
rules [1981]


b. The environment protection rules [1986]


c. The hazardous waste (management and handling) rule
[1989]
which controls the generation, collection, treatment, import,
storage and handling of hazardous waste.


d. The hazardous Bio-medical waste (management and
handling) rule[1998]
notified under the Environment Protection Act by
the Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF)
(Government of India). The main
approaches of this rule are (i) segregation of waste. (ii) Collection of
bio-medical waste (iii)separate waste routes for transportation (iv)safety
measures (v)training. (vi) management and administration (vii)measures for
waste minimization. (viii) Coordination between hospital and outside agencies.


e. The Plastic (recycled) manufacture and usage rule
[1999
] to regulate the manufacture and use of recycled plastics, carry
bags and containers. Salient features of this rule include


(1) Thickness of carry bags made of virgin plastics or
recycled plastics shall not be less than 20 microns.


(2) Carry bags and containers made of virgin plastic shall
be in natural shade or white.


(3) Recycling of plastics shall be under taken strictly in
accordance with the Bureau of Indian Standards specifications.


f. The Ozone Depleting substances rule [2000]


The Noise Pollution (regulation and control rules) 2000


(i) Regulation of production and consumption of ozone
depleting substances.


(ii) Prohibition on export to or import from countries not
specified Schedule VI.


(iii) Ozone depleting substances are not be exported to or
imported from countries specified in Schedule VI under a license.


(iv) Regulation of the sale of ozone depleting substances.


(v) Regulation on the purchase of ozone depleting
substances.


(vi) Regulation on the use of ozone depleting substances.


(vii) Prohibition on new investments with ozone depleting
substances.


(viii) Regulation on import, export and sale of products
made with or containing ozone depleting substances.


SOME ENVIRONMENTAL NOTIFICATION


a. The
Coastal Regulations on Notification [1991].


b. The
Environmental Standards Notification [1993].


c. The
Dumping and Disposal of Fly Ash Notification [1999].


The Ministry of Environment and Forest announced a National Policy for Abatement of
Pollution in 1992
,according to which the key elements for pollution
prevention are adoption of best available clean and feasible technologies
rather than end-pipe treatment. This implies serious consideration of
production process changes, which involve significant improvement in energy and
water conservation. Under the same policy, seventeen categories of heavily
polluting and environmentally critical industries have been identified for
introduction of pollution control measures through economic and policy
instruments on a priority basis. Industries are cement, thermal power plants,
distilleries, sugar, fertilizers, oil refineries etc.

ENVIRONMENT IMPACT ASSESSMENT – EIA



Predicting the effect
of human activities upon the use of environmental resources on the natural
environment is called Environment Impact Assessment. It is a method of evaluating the
environmental consequences that are likely to take place by the proposed human
action. Environmental Impact Assessment reports of various projects [like river
valley projects, ports, harbors, nuclear power plant, tourism project, thermal
power plants, mining projects etc] are evaluated by the Ministry or its
Environmental impact Assessment Agency. The assessment must be completed within
ninety days of receipt of documents and data from the project authorities. The
decision there after must be conveyed within thirty days. If the clearance is
granted it is valid for five years from the commencement of construction or
operation of the project.





The objective of EIA


·
Development with minimum damage to the
environment and maintaining the quality of the environment.


·
Sustainable development so that present and
future generations can meet their needs.


·
Incorporating environmental concern in
development process and also in improved decision making


·
Emphasis on prevention rather than cure of
environmental degradation.

Flow Chart of Activities in EIA Process




EIA process
initiation activity


|


Identification of the
environmental parameters for the project


|

Prediction of impacts of Physical, Ecological
and Socio-economic Environment.





|



Evaluation of impacts as to their significance and integration


|


Analysis of alternate courses of
action


|


Identification of institutional needs to implement EIA
recommendations


|



Development of a Post- Project Monitoring Plan.


|


Communication of information and findings


CHAPTER 16



APPROACHES
FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT


Economic approaches




  • By
    changing the policies at the government level that will promote rising
    income and better environmental services, with no financial costs (by the
    development of cottage industries). Every government formulates economic
    activities and rational use of resources so that the environment can be
    protected and conserved.
  • Policies
    involve the protection of the environment with financial costs such as
    abatement of pollution. To view the estimate of cost controlling pollution
    with the foreseable advantages from a certain pollution control process.
    This would aid to gain maximum net benefit to the society. Even though it
    requires high amounts it is less when compared to the benefits it will
    bring and the resources provided by the economic growth.
    Internationalising pollution control costs reduces production.
  • Polluters
    pay
    - According to this the deterrents may be in the form of effluent
    charges [cess], payments, tax etc. so that the would be polluters are discouraged
    from adding dirt to an already dirt-ridden world. This is where
    enforcement agencies and the industries are mutually opposed.
  • As
    there are many pollutants which are becoming part of the urban
    environment, such estimates need to be done for each and every pollutant
    individually to be able to sum up the actual effects.i.e., total
    control cost and total benefits.

  • As
    economic development and environmental stresses are related to one another
    economics and ecology should be integrated in decision-making and law-
    making process, to protect the environment and also to promote
    development. SW for the human welfare both economy and ecology are equally
    important. There is divergence in cost- benefit analysis and there is
    ambiguity in the cause effect relationship. This has become apparent by
    studying the Tehri Dam and Silent
    Valley projects
    cases. In such situations the Govt of India turns to National
    Environmental Tribunal, which it has appointed, constituted by legal,
    scientific, technological and administrative experts. They deal with the
    problems concerned with wildlife and environment.
  • Prevention
    is better than cure
    is the policy that can be used in environment
    management by preventing wastage and pollution. Making good products will
    save precious resources, time, money and labour. Again it is better to
    prevent a spill than clean it up later, because even though cleaning
    reduces pollution, pollution will takes it toll. So development of sound
    economic policies can bring about positive change.









Different approaches to
environment development.



1. National Economic
Development Board:-



  • To
    achieve sustainable social and economic growth through rational
    utilization of resources such as water, soil, plant and animal life.
  • Set
    up methodologies for reclamation of environmentally degraded areas.
  • Carrying
    out projects to check general envirnmntal awareness by public
    participation in solving environmental problems under its Eco- Development
    Programme.

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PostSubject: Re: EE Notes   Thu Dec 27, 2007 8:33 am

2. Stockholm Conference:-


·
Increased the co-operation among nations of the
CMEA [Council for Mutual Economic Assistance]


·
Increased emphasis on environmental protection
in the co-operation between CMEA member states and developing countries, which
have included such topics such as hydropower, water and land management.


·
Assistance to the developing nations with the
installation of environmentally sound plants and machinery.


3. Environmental Indicators


·
Are measures of the state of and pressures on
the environment and have 3 basic functions- simplification, quantification and
communication.


·
It shows the environment quality in an area ,
the objectives for maintaining the quality of environment, the harmful effects of a toxic matter in air,
water and food.


Importance of
environmental indicators


·
Common man even can be aware of the quality of
his environment


·
Helps to understand the impact of our activities
on to some specific parameters of the environment.


·
Help the agencies or project designers to
understand the deadlines to aim at for maintaining the quality of particular
parameter of the environment.


·
Legislations needed to maintain it and the
budget for carrying out this maintenance.


·
To raise awareness of the environment and show
progress towards sustainable development.





4. Biological
Indicators



Microbes, plants, animals, cell
organelles, organs, individuals, populations, biotic communities and ecosystem
show different levels of sensitivity and can be successfully employed as
ecological indicators to assess and predict environmental change in a timely
manner. There are indicators of potential productivity of land, indicators of
agriculture, climate, soil type and other soil characteristics, of fire,
petroleum deposits, adequate oxygen in water, pollution, overgrazing etc. These
bio indicators have a remarkable potential in forecasting disasters, prevention
of pollution, exploration and conservation of natural resources, all aiming at
sustainable development with minimal destruction of the biosphere.


(1) Soil Indicators: - Luxuriant growth of some
taller and deeply rooted grasses like Psoralea indicates a sandy loan type of
soil, whereas the presence of grasses as Andropogon indicates sandy soil. Rumex
acetosella indicates an acid grassland soil, whereas Spermacoce stricta the
iron- rich soil in the area. Some plants grow better in low-lying lands (eg
Heliotropium supinum, Polygonum plebejum). Shorea robusta, Cassia obtusifolia
etc indicate proper aeration of soil. Some grasses prefer to grow up properly-
drained soils. Some plants (Kochia Vesrifer) indicate saline soils Capparis
Spinosa And Carissa Spinurum indicate intense soil erosion.


(2) Indicators of fire:- Some plants like Agrostis heimalis pyronema confluens (fungus)
dominate in areas destructed by fires. Pteridium Sp. indicate burnt and highly
disturbed coniferous forests.


(3) Petroleum deposit indicators:- Some protozoa as
fusilinds indicate petroleum deposits in the area.


(4)Indicators of pollution: - Plants like
Utricularea, Chara, Wolffia prefer to grow in polluted waters. E.coli bacteria
also indicate water pollution. Pollution by sewage is indicated by diatoms.
Movement of fish like Catla catla, Labeogonic, L bata, L rohita and
Natopterus matopterius away from the
water indicates industrial pollution of water. Lichens grow well in unpolluted
environment.


(5) Indicators of Overgrazing: -Annual weeds and
short- lived perennials like Amaranthus, Chenopodium and polygonum etc grow
better in overgrazed areas.


(6) Indicators of climate: - Plant communities
characteristic of a particular region provide information on the climate of
that area. E.g. Evergreen forests indicate high rainfall in winter, xerophytic
vegetation indicate a very lower no rainfall in the year.


Thus
organisms, chiefly plants, species communities oe even systems serve as a
measure or index of the environment. If plants serve as indicators they are
called pant indicators. Large species serve as better indicate than small
species. (‘Steno’ species serve much better indicators than ‘Eury’ species.)


5. Physio-
Chemical indicators



Are helpful to assess the
magnitude of impacts due to mining activities eg. The extend of minerals,
overburden, ore ratio, general quality of the mineral deposits etc can indicate
the quantum of rejects to be removed and hence a clue to the impact on land can
be assessed, to study the quality of soil, problem of natural forest
regeneration, problem of water conservation etc.


Environment Management Plan
[EMP]



Covers the following aspects,


  • Safeguards
    and control the measures that are proposed to prevent or mitigate the
    adverse environment impacts.
  • Plans
    for rehabilitation of project outees.
  • Contingency
    plans for dealing with accidents or disasters.
  • Monitoring
    and feed back mechanisms on impletions of necessary safeguards.



Risk
assessment.



It is the
assessment of risk involved due to the continuous exposure to a particular
pollutant or due to the pollutant’s inherent poisoning ability. It is assessed
by various methods like (i)
Risk characterization.


(ii)Exposure
assessment.


(iii)Toxicity
assessment.


(iv)Hazard
identification


Setting of Standards
(Environment Standards)



*Are the legal standards for the
concentration of substances in air, land and water (or ecological system) set legally for maintaining and managing
the environment so that it will continue to be suitable for man and other
species of the ecosystem.


*These standards should be
compatible with detailed and comprehensive planning for the development of the
region.


*It should be the basis for the drawing up of
the control strategies in the region
and also on the broad range of economic, social, technical and political;
considerations.It can be national, regional or local in
application.


*Minimum environmental quality
standards based on the maximum assimilative capacity of the environment


*The ministry under the environment
protection act lays down industry specific as well as general effluent
standards for all the different categories of industries and automobiles, 1986.


*It represents concentrations of
substances, which must not exceeded if a specified use of the environment is to
be maintained.








*In India environment standards have
been fixed fixed by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) and Central Pollution
Control Boards. (CPCB) New Delhi.



The standard sets levels of
pollution in two ways namely


(i) Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI)
and


(ii) Maximum Permissible Intake
(MPI).


These are referred to as
Primary standards
when they are applied to different products,


Product Standards when they are applied to food products such as
raw and cooked foods and Emission and Discharge standards or when applied to the emission and discharge by specific group of emitters
like industries and automobiles and require that all members of these groups
emits no more than the permitted emission levels.


Air quality standard


  • It
    was set up according to the clean Air Act for 6 principal pollutants
    considered harmful to public health and environment.
  • Are
    the legal limits placed on the levels of air pollutants in the ambient air
    during a given period of time (+ the points after the 1st bullet of the
    envt standards)



Ministries included in setting standards for vehicular emissions:-


1. Ministry of Road Transport and highways (connected with traffic
management and expansion of urban public transport system)


2. Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (improvement of fuel quality)


3. Ministry of Heavy Industry and
public Enterprises (up gradation of automobile technology)

Auto fuel policy:-




Is set up by the Ministry along
with the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas for the entire country and
devised a map for its implementation, taking into the account vehicular
emission norms recommended by the inter- Ministerial task Force to the Ministry
of Petroleum and Natural Gas, and the ongoing work on ethanol blending of
gasoline and use of bio fuels in transportation.


Indian Standards: - The
first Indian emission regulations were idle emission limits which became
effective in 1989. Since the year 2000, India started adopting European
emission and fuel regulations for four wheeled vehicles.


ISO 14001, BS
7750 and EMAS are some examples of environment standards.


ISO 14000: - Global
environment standard for the management systems that address


(i)
Environment concerns.


(ii)
Energy and natural resource consumption operations.


(iii)
Systems for measuring, assessing and managing waste
streams.


It is mainly concerned with
environment management and is possessed by companies which was in good faith
making consistent and diligent efforts to manage its environment impact..


ECOMARK: - is a label given
to an Eco Friendly product. Household and other consumer products, which meet
certain environment criteria along with the quality requirements of the Indian
Standards Institute for that product, may be accredited and labeled under this
scheme. The Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, issues
the ECOMARK notifications. This eco labeling scheme was launched in 1991 for
easy identification of environmentally product and for creating environment
awareness.

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PostSubject: Re: EE Notes   Thu Dec 27, 2007 8:33 am

(Any product, which is made, used
or disposed off in a way that significantly reduces the harm it would otherwise
cause the environment, could be considered an Environment Friendly Product.)


INFORMATION EXCHANGE AND
SURVEILLANCE.



*Free exchange of information
between developed countries and under developed ones is vital to environmental
management [Regarding the experience and technologies and adoption of standard
and control methods (if ecological and economic conditions are the same)]


*The organizations should
provide information and guidelines for 9individual countries to manage their
environment problems. The organizations can conduct regional and international
survey regarding the environmental problems i.e. to identify, select and
priorities environmental problems.


*Information exchange and
surveillance is aimed at gathering the information necessary to evaluate the
natural resources both quantitatively and qualitatively.


*ENVIS: - (ENVronmental
Information System) began in 1982 by the Govt of India)


*Environmental information system
used to get constant information about the environment.


*It is a decentralized
system using the distributed network of date basis and ensuring integration of
national efforts in environmental information collection, storage, retrieval
and wide dissemination by avoiding duplication of efforts.


*ENVIS centers have been set up in
25 different subject areas throughout the country. Work in these areas relating
to different subject areas of environment is referred for supplying the
information by all ENVIS centers through WEBSITES.


*Publications of newsletters in
specific subject areas. Other relevant documents and journals are also brought
out.


The main focus of ENVIS is to
provide environmental information to decision makers, policy planners,
scientists and engineers, workers etc all over the country.


*Paryavaram Abstract:
-
* is a quarterly journal reporting information on environmental
research in Indian context.* It is published by ENVIS Focal Point. The relevant
database of this journal has also been developed and included in the Ministry’s
Website for easy and quick retrieval of relevant information by the users.


, *INFOTERRA an International Referral System which
is network of United Nations Environment Programme, that provides
referral sources of information on the environment from a global computerized
file of about 100,000 sources I response to specific queries from both national
and international sources in the global network. A thorough updating of these
sources in the country is done from time to time.*Department of Environment:
-i
s the NFP (National Focus Point) of INFOTERRA


*ENVIRONEWS is quarterly newsletter of the
Ministry, which reports important policies, programmes enactment of new
legislations or rules, important notifications and other decisions taken by the
Ministry from time to time.


*EIC: -Environment Information Centre. It began its
function in 2002 and it was constructed by MOEF (Ministry of Environment and
Forests) India.
Its main function is to act as a data bank for all information on the quality
of the environment.


* Role of remote sensing in information exchange.


(1) Remote sensing data centers associated with the earth
stations have the sole responsibility to disseminate the data to individual
users and user organizations on payment basis. (2) EOSAT (Earth Observation Satellite
Company) found in 1985 has linkages with the ground stations and an extensive
distribution network. (3) National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA) Hyderabad has earth-received stations at Shad Nagar near Hyderabad to acquire
process and market remote sensing data product of certain series of satellites.
These data products mostly Cater the needs of South East Asian countries
including India, Middle East and also of African Countries. (4)Remote
sensing helps in the assessment of land surface water, sub- surface water,
process of deforestation, desertification, urbanization and land use changes,
hazard zone mapping, forest fires detection and damage assessment and
monitoring of ecological range conditions.


*National Green Corps (Eco-clubs) It is an attempt
to bring about a change in the attitudes in the society through children. It
has been launched by the Ministry of forests, Govt of India.


The main objectives: -


1. Educate
the children about their interdependence and their need for survival, through
visits and demonstrations.


2. To
mobilize youngsters by instilling in them the spirit of scientific inquiry into
environmental problems and involving them in efforts of environmental
preservation.





Forest Survey of India. (FSI)


It was created in June 1981 for periodic monitoring the
changing situation of land and forest resources and present the data for
national; conservation and management of environmental preservation and
implementation of social forestry projects. Its other objectives are


1.
To prepare a comprehensive state of Forest Report (SFR) including
National; Forest Vegetation Map (NVM) once in two years.


2.
Preparation of thematic maps through the use of remote sensing data with
minimum essential truth verification on a 10 years cycle.


3.
To collect, store and retrieve necessary forestry and forestry related
data for national and state level planning.


4.
To design methodologies relating to forest surveys and subsequent
updating.


Botanical Survey of India (BSI)


It was formally constituted in 13-02-1890 at Kolkatta and
now has 9 regional centers in Coimbatore, Pune,
Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Allahabad,
Shilling, Dehradun, Jodhpur,
Itanagar and Gangtok


The aims and objectives of the survey
were redefined by the programme Implementation and Evaluation Committee in
1976. It includes;


1.
Encourage taxonomic research and to accelerate the scientific expertise
for the preparation of a comprehensive flora of the country, under Flora of
India project.


2.
To survey the plant resources of the country.


3.
To undertake and complete taxonomic studies of all the flora of the
country.


4.
To enlist the endangered species and to undertake measures for the
effective conservation and to collect and maintain germplasm and gene bank of
endangered, patent and vulnerable species.


5.
To identify, collect and preserve specimens of plants which are
economically and otherwise beneficial to human beings.


The zoological survey of India(ZSI)


Was established on 1-07-1916 to promote survey, exploration
and research leading to the advancement in our knowledge of the various aspects
of the exceptionally rich animal life of the erstwhile ‘British Indian Empire’.


It holds symposia and conferences, training courses,
workshops and colloquia.


The scientists of the department are constantly exposed to
the stimulation of ideas and techniques developed by the visiting
investigators.


Through its journals it publishes the results of its
research.


Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)


Deals with the complex interaction between a product and the
environment. It is also known as Life Cycle assessment or Eco-balance.
Governments and the customers simply expect that companies pay attention to the
environmental properties of all products.


There are
two steps in LCA.



1.
It describes which emissions will occur and which raw materials are used
during the life of a product. This is known as inventory step.


2.
Assess the impacts of these emissions and raw materials depleted during
its manufacture.






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PostSubject: Re: EE Notes   Thu Dec 27, 2007 8:34 am





CHAPTER—17




CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT




Sustainable development
is the successful management of the
resources for development that meets the changing needs of the present without
compromising on the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It
should take into account the impact of our activities on the environment and
try to minimize environment changes.


The
issue of sustainable development was discussed in detail for the first time at
the international level in the UN conference on “Environment and
Development”
held at Rio de Janeiro
(Brazil)
in 1992
. This conference is commonly known as “The Earth summit’.




Its declaration aims at “a new and
equitable global partnership through the creation of new levels of cooperation
among states”. Agenda 21 is one of its five significant agreements, which
proposes a global programme of action on sustainable development for the 21st
century in social, economic, and political spheres. (which is a blue print for
achieving sustainable development. )

Two aspects of sustainable development.( Refer 14 th lessons note.)




(i)Intra-generational equality: -(ii)Inter-generational
equality: -



Features of
sustainable development.(Planning methods in sustainable development)



(i) Efficient use of resources or Productive
sustainability
.: -Involves utilization of fewer resources and offering
better values by using technologies. What we take from nature must be put back
so that regeneration of resources continues along with the continual supply for
man’s needs.


(ii) Quality of life of Future generations or social
responsibility
: -making use of natural resources to increase the existing
standard of living without compromising on the ability of future generations to
meet their own needs. We should take into consideration whether the future
generations will be affected by the environment degradation that ultimately
results from economic decisions made today.


(iii) Decrease in Pollution: -Sustainable development
decreases those activities, which may cause pollution and degrade the
environment. It will leave the air a
little cleaner and fresher, a sparkle in the water and the earth a little
greener for generations who are yet to come on the most beautiful planet in
this universe.


(iv) Economic and social development: - will increase
the future rate of economic development and establish an ecologically viable
community..

(v)Aesthetic sustainability: -Developing
and protecting the cultural heritage in
an area so that the future generations can benefit from the aesthetics they
provide.





(vi)Strengthening and sharing: - building human
capabilities and ensuring basic needs for all irrespective of rich and poor.


CHAPTER18


CONCEPT OF
SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION
.


Sustainable consumption is a way of organizing
lifestyles to match the carrying capacity of the earth in a sustainable and
just manner. If the carrying capacity is
crossed by the overexploitation of the resource, environment degradation starts
and continues till it reaches a point of no return. Thus we have to utilize our
resources based upon the supporting and assimilative capacity. Consumption
should not exceed regeneration and changes should not be allowed to occur
beyond the tolerance capacity.

SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION OF TRIBAL PEOPLE




Forests were treated with great
respect and dignity and their importance were reflected in their culture and
lifestyles. They believed that the survival of nature and forests is needed to
fulfill their material needs and for their cultural survival. Thus they
harmonized their activities with their natural environment so that they could
survive generation after generation..


1. Their dress code and
headgears, their weapons and tools are governed by available resources.


They utilized every part of the forest product they take for
their requirement and wasted nothing. Everything is consumed in one way or
other. E.g. Birds and animals hunted for food provide attractive feathers for
making headgears, skin, hide and fur for clothing and making tents etc. Bones
were used for making weapons, tools, ornaments etc. Leaves, barks, stems and
grasses also were not wasted. Made ropes and ladders from specific creepers.


2.Traditional medicines used by these people are now being
used for curing major diseases and ailments and their demands to large
pharmaceutical companies have been increased..


3.Their lifestyle do not cause pollution; neither their
activities deplete or deteriorate the environment. So they do not face the
problem of waste disposal and pollution like modern man.


4.They are governed by rules that teach them how to utilize
the natural resources available to them and how to partition them on the basis
of equity.


5.They exercise choice in almost everything they do so that
the biodiversity and the ecology are not disturbed by their action.


6.Their local environment and ecology determine their
activities and lifestyles, and the manner by which they utilize and conserve
their natural resources. Tribal religious and cultural beliefs and lifestyles
are based on nature and sustainable utilization of material resources.


7.There is no conflict or
competition in resource use, and partitioning of resources are done on the
basis of equity with no overlapping so that there is enough for all according
to their needs.


E.g. If in a forest one tribe
specializes in hunting a particular animal, then the other tribe living in the
same forest will specialize in hunting a different animal; their food habits
and method of hunting will be different and will not clash with each
other. Even the weapons they use will be
different. Other tribes will be food gatherers or be engaged in primitive
cultivation. A tribe may be engaged in specialization of medicinal herbs and
sorcery, and be confined to healing sicknesses and ailments and various forms
of cultural and religious activities.


8.The tribal people living in the forests
follow logic in life which is very much different from


that of the modern man. They understand the
grave consequences of misusing and over-exploiting forest and its
products.


9.They are not attracted towards
development and modernization which may seem to give them a more comfortable
and convenient lifestyle, but strongly believe in the importance of forests as
their sustainer. They are ready to die in order to save the forests on which
their survival depends.

10.They have special knowledge of soil
conservation and land management. Their spiritual leaders are able to test the
soil by colour, weight and taste and assess the degradation of the land.





They knew specific plants that arrest soil erosion, how to
improve soil fertility and how to use green manure and growth stimulants.


Thus we can see that the tribal people and their culture
need to be conserved as we have to learn much about their sustainable forest
practices, their knowledge about the biodiversity of the forests and their
values, ways to sustain soil and water and in fact about very web of life and
its diverse linkages. Thus they lived in complete harmony with the forests,
animals, plants and even among themselves.

Oslo
Symposium





A symposium on sustainable consumption in January 1994. They
identified some of the critical themes for sustainable consumption. They are


  • Improving
    analysis and raising public awareness.
  • Providing
    incentives for sustainable consumption.
  • Making
    energy use more sustainable and efficient.
  • Providing
    new strategies for transportation and cities.
  • Accelerating
    the use of more efficient and cleaner technologies.



CHAPTER--- 19

NEED FOR SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT (for improving the quality of life)





What is the need for sustainable development?


  • To
    improve the quality of life.
  • To
    prevent the depletion of resources so that future generations also get
    benefit.
  • To
    prevent the pollution of air, land and water.
  • To
    reduce the gap between rich and poor.

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PostSubject: Re: EE Notes   Thu Dec 27, 2007 8:34 am


  • To
    reduce poverty.
  • For
    economic development.


How to carry out sustainable development?




The World
Development Report 2003 suggests that ensuring sustainable development requires
attention not just to economic growth but also to environment and social issues
or else growth itself will be jeopardized in the longer term. Thus it requires:
-


1. Restructure for sustainability and reshape our economy to
reflect environmental costs and values by the use of more efficient and innovative
goods by changing methods in production and consumption, utilization of fewer
resources and offering better values.


2. Governments should set up higher environment standards in
energy consumption and purchasing policies. The welfare of the environment must
be given higher value in the process of decision making for any project of
development.


3. Individuals must recognize that the products they buy and
use do not tax the environment in any way so that quality of the environment is
improved. For this there should be a change in our attitudes and value systems
and use of eco-friendly products and better and cheaper services and
facilities, so that consumer satisfaction is not impaired.


4. Eradication of poverty, child death, child labor, gender
disparities etc and improving health.


5. Seeking public opinion in decision making.


6. Adoption and encouragement of traditional practices and
protection of tribals and their knowledge
and adopting measures to improve the soil fertility; reforestation etc


7. Family welfare programme to reduce population and to
improve the standard of women.


8. Use of technology in extending the use of resources, use
of renewable energy sources and preventing the depletion of resources and
minimizing the waste and environmental pollution by recycling and reusing and
to introduce equipments of higher efficiency and less fuel consumption. This is
necessary for preventing land degradation and conserving resources and
biodiversity.


9. To reduce the gap between the rich and poor, by training
and education programmes and by meeting their needs to eliminate poverty. The
level of consumption of poor population must increase by providing them greater
opportunities for development, such as educational and employment opportunities
so that their level of income increases to more sustainable standards


10. To improve the design, construction and maintenance of
buildings in the ecological sense and also for safeguarding our health. The
buildings should use only a minimum of non-renewable energy like coal, mineral
oil and natural gas and be energy efficient in its design so as to maximize the
sunlight and utilize renewable sources of energy like solar energy, wind
energy, biogas. The materials and design save forest resources like timber and
mineral wealth. They contain water-harvesting structures for water
conservation.


11. Alternate energy programmes to develop new sources of
renewable energy. A high-powered Commission for Additional Sources of Energy
(CASE) was set up by the Ministry of Power and Non-Conventional Sources in
1981. Development of biogas created energy, helped in improving the sanitary
conditions in cities and villages, in eliminating smoke etc.


Under the solar thermal energy
programme, a number of thermal technologies have evolved that convert solar
energy directly into electricity for use in different purposes.


12. Policies of government: - The Policy Statement for
Abatement of pollution recommends


the adoption of clean technologies that
are based on waste minimization rather than end


of the pipe treatment and
substitution of chemicals with safe alternatives. This can save



the cost of pollution control facilities and can prolong the use of the
product, which


reduce manufacturing costs and the use of raw
material used for the manufacturing of the



product. There is mix of instruments including
legislation and regulation, and Fiscal


incentives, educational programmes and
information campaigns are being used toward



these objectives. Minimal National Standards
or MINIAS set the limits for harmful emissions



and discharge of effluents for each type of
industry.


13. Managing travel demand
more efficiently: -The success in overcoming the problems of road


pollution and traffic in cities can be overcome
by planned use of land, cheap suburban railways,


making streets safer for cyclists and
pedestrians, giving buses priority over other modes of transport, using clean
fuels, burn fuels more efficiently, putting barriers in the path of pollutants.


14. Proper disposal of waste that
cause pollution.


15. Environment awareness programmes to make the people
aware of the hazardous consequences.


What is an ecofriendly product.


A product that will not cause
pollution during its production, when it is disposed off, when it is used, should not cause the
depletion of a resource for its production, that can be recycled and is in
compliance with Environmental Laws, Standards and Regulations..


What is Eco
Labeling? / Ecomark.



It is the marking of goods to indicate that
they are environmentally friendly. Eco marking has been adopted in many
countries, including Canada,
Japan, India, Germany,
Sweden
and U.S.A. Germany was one of the first countries to introduce eco labeling in
1978.

The objective of eco marking is




*Influencing
the behavior of consumers.


*Helping them
identify the environmental impacts of products.


*Encourage
manufactures to reduce the impacts of their products.


*For easy identification of
environmentally product and for creating environment awareness.


The ecomark or eco
labeling scheme was adopted in India
in 1991.
Household and other consumer products, which meet certain
environment criteria along with the quality requirements of the Indian
Standards Institute for that product, may be accredited and labeled under this
scheme. The Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, issues
the ECOMARK notifications. This was launched in 1991.


What is Steward ship? Ans ) It refers to a caring attitude for
things specially towards environment and its resource, protection of
environment through recycling, reuse and carrying out sustainable development
practices that contribute towards conservation of environment and resources
come under Steward ship. Land can be considered as a resource given to look
after and we can take benefits from it but not commercial exploitation. We have
the rights and responsibilities to preserve the envt.


CHAPTER—20


CHALLENGES FOR
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT



Challenges for sustainable
development include social, political, environmental and economic
considerations. These challenges have
increased in the past few decades due to increased population,
individual needs and industrial and technological developments.

Social considerations: -




Sustainable society is needed for conserving the resources,
reduce waste and avoid degradation of resources. For that society will have to
be transformed in its attitudes, thoughts, skills and training to achieve a
more superior form of human resource.


1.Population: -is a challenge
for sustainable development. The expanding population puts considerable
pressure on the natural resources and reduces the grains of development.


2.Poverty: -Environmental
degradation has affected the poor who depend upon the resources of their
immediate surroundings. The poor people are completely depended on the natural
resources for their basic needs. Without eliminating poverty, malnutrition
and unemployment we cannot carry out
sustainable development. Healthy populaton is also a must for S.D.



3.Inequality: - between the
rich and poor masses. Equity in resource sharing and facilities among all
citizens and equal opportunities to education and employment is fundamental if
the future of the people is to be safeguarded for the common good of the
society.


4.Illiteracy and unemployment: - Lack
of education is an imp. factor. Literacy improves the way of living and
quality of life. Education especially of women plays an important role in
control of population and prevention of environmental degradation. Education
can change the attitudes and values of the present and future generations.
Special training programs towards attaining sustainability must be provided at
all levels.


5. Unsustainable production and
consumption by a large number of people.

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PostSubject: Re: EE Notes   Thu Dec 27, 2007 8:35 am

6.Human settlements / urbanization:
-
especially in the urban areas where one third of the human population
live. Urban poor often create slum areas which affect development. Increased
urbanizations has created severe challenges for water supply and sanitation.


7.Globalisation: The swift waxing and waning of industries and
livelihoods, the sudden shifts of production and capital trigger political
counter movements that challenge the very ground rules of global free market.

Environmental considerations: -




1.Water management: -Restoring the water quality of
our rivers and other water bodies is an important challenge. Finding out
suitable strategies for conservation of water, provision of safe drinking water
and keeping the water bodies clean are difficult challenges.


2.Land degradation: -Almost half of our agricultural
land suffers from varying degree of soil degradation. Human activities have
contributed much to the degradation.


3.Pollution: -of air land and water from industries
and automobiles with no provision for treatment of wastes. Treatment of waste
and clean technologies require huge money, which is a difficult task especially
in developing countries.


4.Biodiversity: -Habitat destruction and
overexploitation of biodiversity have reduced their number and made many of the
species extinct, which in turn is a threat to sustainability.

Economic considerations: -




1.Low per capita income and quality of life of people: First
condition of sustainability is to raise percapita income and quality of life.


2.Reduction in the Natural Capital Stock: - Natural
Capital stock which represents the stock of all kind of environment and natural
resources is also depleted and exhausted due to human activities. Developing
countries have limited resources available and competing demands for investing
them


3.Energy: -Excess use of fossil fuels to meet the
energy needs has caused a lot of environment problems and much have to be done
to meet the energy needs of the country in a clean way.


4.Lack of dynamism and stability in global economy: - The
uncertainty in the global economy,
inadequate development finance, barriers that restrict access to markets
and depressed commodity prices and
incompatible and inconsistent commodity policies affect sustainability.


5.Poverty:- Lack of finance and poverty. The three
types of poverty that challenges S.D are mental poverty, personal poverty and
national poverty. Due to personal poverty govt has to spend its money kept
apart for development for the welfare of these poor people.

Political considerations: -




1.Government backing appropriate policies: -so
that application of most helpful
technologies, economic policies and practices is not possible. The principles
of sound environmental policies are difficult for national governments to
introduce and translate into international agreements.


2.Reluctancy in challenging the rich and influential
governments: -
who contribute much to environmental degradation.


3.Instiutional obstacles: - which create
international environmental problems. It is difficult to reach to an agreement
among different countries, each of which may perceive its national interest
differently.


4.No guarantee that the nations will implement the given
set of policies
even though here is political and administrative will and
finances as they think that the policies redistribute or limit resources and
resource access.


5. Lack of proper strong political will and leadership to
identify their national priorities and to seriously address the policy and
institutional issues surrounding sustainability and global environment.


6. Inability of the government to identify the root cause
of people’s problems and if identified ignoring it.
It is one of the reason for not achieving peace and
stability by many developing nations.











CHAPTER21

SUPPORT BASE FOR
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT





A goal which ultimately is the true goal of developing an
environmentally sound and sustainable development is needed. The United Nations
Conference on Environment and Development(UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992 has provided
leaders to agree for a strategy to work towards a support base for sustainable
development. (Rio summit)

Political and administrative will: -



·
Among developed
and developing nations to help and cooperate with one other towards a unified
effort in achieving a sustainable way of living in a world that is racing
towards environmental degradation.




·
A sincere will
to consider that environmental issues are not merely national issues, but are
global and must be tackled with international efforts and cooperation, abiding
the international laws and agreements and make an effort to set environmental
standards in their own nations while respecting those of other nations.





  • Rich
    nations must join hands with the developing nations in helping them in
    developmental programmes, technology and education so that an all-round
    development towards sustainability takes place.
  • To
    present the laws, policies and standards that would ultimately lead to the
    goal of SD using many monitoring methods and administrative system.



Dynamic or flexible policies: -


  • There
    should be dynamic and flexible policies involving local and regional
    conditions and those, which are ecofriendly to deal with the challenges
    for sustainable development.
  • A
    feasible policy that would cater to the future needs and be able to be
    adapted according to the needs should be made as the advancement in
    science and technology every day are leading to environmental problems.
  • Policy
    makers should keep a global or international out look even as they are
    dealing with local environmental situation.
  • Stress
    should be given on the 3 R’s which not only reduces pollution but also
    saves the resources. The government will always have difficulties when on
    one hand it must protect and on the other hand exploit resources on which
    it depends both materially and politically. Keeping in mind these
    contradictions it is the task of the environmental analyst or policy maker
    to redesign and reimplement policies in what is fundamentally a process
    that is repeated again and again.
  • There
    should be changes in the incentive structures, particularly economic
    incentives, that foster grass root adoption of sustainable technologies.
  • Tax
    policy, land reform, land tilting, credit policies, commodity prices,
    tariffs, utility rates, social security programmes, low-income, housing policy,
    consumer food subsidies and labour legislation each have at least as much
    effect on environmental conditions as environmental policy does. Eg
    Attempts to a slow deforestation or encourage agro forestry will not
    succeed up till forest and tax policies promote exploiting mining of
    forest resources and up till agricultural policies force peasant farmers
    to clear forested areas.



Appropriate Technologies(AP)


This technology called as
people’s technology is the environment friendly technology that has been
instructed by the government to serve as aid in sustainable industrialization,
sustainable agriculture, low levels of pollution, correct use of energy and
minimum wastage. CLEAN INDIA (an NGO) describes AP as ‘one which serves the
goals of development…..which springs from indigenous activity, in response to
local needs and possibilities’ It has become the indicators of clean green and
sustainable production and consists of new manufacturing process that involves


·
Zero pollution


·
Zero health hazard to workers


·
Zero waste production


·
Efficient use of resources.

Its special features includes: -




  • Thus
    it creates new products or modifying existing ones.
  • It
    develops products that are made of renewable materials, that will reduces
    the environmental impacts of the products, elimination of toxic raw
    materials and which have low consumption of energy.
  • It is
    a relevant, co-operative, educative and people oriented device, which
    keeps the bureaucratic interference to the minimum.
  • It
    prevents marginalization of poor communities and promotes their
    empowerment.
  • It
    will help in bringing the society
    together by absorbing traditional production methods with modern science.



·
It enable common man to improve his employment
potential (local talents) for local development and advancement, thus helping
to create communities with village development schemes, without depending upon
industries and ecological degradation.


  • It
    focuses of reducing impacts along the entire life of the product, from the
    extraction of raw materials to the ultimate disposal of the product.


Comprehensive Review and Revision Mechanisms




  • Periodic
    monitoring of the various programmes is important to maintain momentum, to
    keep the strategy on track and give early warning of unforeseen
    difficulties. It has to be made and and is an inherent quality of all
    policies framed for the protection and preservation of environment
  • Annual
    exercise should be periodically complemented by a more comprehensive
    review at the beginning of each term.
  • The
    developmental plans should be reviewed and revised under the prevailing
    conditions. The revisions need to come about in education, administrative
    procedures, technologies, resources and indeed development itself.
  • The
    mechanism of revision of policies and technologies should be humane and
    reasonable keeping in mind the welfare of the poor and the common man.
  • Sufficient
    analysis of various alternatives, their costs and benefits and impact on
    the environment should accompany the proposed action through the agency
    review process.
  • To
    improve the environment technologies and practices should be at a
    reasonable cost and more productive than the already existing ones.
  • It
    should be done under the guidance of highly professional and trained
    persons. Then by assessing the loop-holes and fall shorts of previous
    policies we can easily improve the policies to be formed in the future
    thereby, bringing the elements of trial-error improvement and efficiency
    in the entire process.


Humane approach




·
The main aim of ecologically sustainable
development is to maximize human well-being without jeopardizing the basic life
support system. There should be human approach while planning the developmental
policies which do not create much harm to the society.


  • Policies
    that help to reduce poverty (as majority of the poor people are suffering
    due to environmental losses), population growth, promote
    education(especially girls), health and sanitation to uplift the weaker
    sections of the society. More resources should be allocated to family
    planning and to primary and
    secondary education.
  • Ecological
    and economical harmony and equity through planned development is the theme
    that should be reviewed for a more humane approach for all development
    planning and policies instead of widening the gap of inequity.


Attention should be
focused on afforestation, use of non-conventional sources of energy, organic
fertilizers, ecofriendly products, bio-techniques and in giving environmental
education

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